No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The kinematic origin of the cosmological redshift
2.S. Carroll, Spacetime and Geometry: An Introduction to General Relativity (Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, 2003).
3.B. F. Schutz, A First Course in General Relativity (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1985).
4.C. W. Misner, K. S. Thorne, and J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1973).
5.W. J. Kaufmann and R. Freedman, Universe, 5th ed. (W. H. Freeman, New York, 1999).
6.A. Fraknoi, D. Morrison, and S. Wolff, Voyages Through the Universe, 3rd ed. (Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, 2004).
7.M. A. Seeds, Foundations of Astronomy, 10th ed. (Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA, 2007).
8.J. Peacock, Cosmological Physics (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 1998).
9.E. V. Linder, First Principles of Cosmology (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1997).
10.E. Harrison, Cosmology, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U.P., Cambridge, 2000).
, “Is space really expanding? A counterexample
,” Concepts Phys. 4
14.A. B. Whiting, “The expansion of space: free-particle motion and the cosmological redshift,” Observatory 124, 174–189 (2004).
15.One might argue against this claim by noting that the general relativistic Maxwell equations contain covariant derivatives, which “know about” the expansion. However, covariant derivatives are locally indistinguishable from ordinary derivatives because a local Minkowski frame can always be chosen.
17.T. M. Davis
, C. H. Lineweaver
, and J. K. Webb
, “Solutions to the tethered galaxy problem in an expanding universe and the observation of receding blueshifted objects
19.F. I. Cooperstock, V. Faraoni, and D. N. Vollick, “The influence of the cosmological expansion on local systems,” Astrophys. J. 503, 61–66 (1998).
21.M. J. Francis, L. A. Barnes, J. B. James, and G. F. Lewis, “Expanding space: The root of all evil?,” Publ. - Astron. Soc. Aust. 24, 95–102 (2007).
22.If you try this argument, let us know how it works out for you.
24.This fact is an occasional source of confusion, because a low-density universe is an open universe, in which space, as opposed to spacetime, has negative curvature. What matters in the present context is the spacetime curvature, that is, the deviation of the overall spacetime metric from that of special relativity, not the spatial curvature. The latter describes the geometry of a “slice” through the spacetime at constant time in a particular coordinate system.
25.T. M. Davis and C. H. Lineweaver, “Superluminal recession velocities,” in Cosmology and Particle Physics, edited by R. Durrer, J. Garcia-Bellido, and M. Shaposhnikov (American Institute of Physics, Washington, DC, 2001), Vol. 555, pp. 348–351.
26.T. M. Davis and C. H. Lineweaver, “Expanding confusion: Common misconceptions of cosmological horizons and the superluminal expansion of the universe,” Publ. - Astron. Soc. Aust. 21, 97–109 (2004).
27.J. L. Synge, Relativity: The General Theory (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1960).
29.H. Bondi, “Spherically symmetrical models in general relativity,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 107, 410–425 (1947).
30.W. Rindler, Essential Relativity, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977).
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...
Most read this month