The alkali D lines. Note the progression toward longer wavelength and the significant increase in spacing for the heavier atoms.
(a) Alkali principal series showing the decrease in the magnetic field felt by the electron with increasing principal quantum number. (b) The excited state structure that gives rise to the spectra in (a).
A pair of sodium emission lines with and without an externally applied field.
A sample hyperfine spectrum showing transitions in rubidium-85 from to , 3, 4.
(a) Observed emission bands. Above 380 nm, the intensity has been multiplied by a factor of 3. (b) Vibrational energy level diagrams derived from the band spectra shown in (a).
High-resolution emission spectrum near 391.4 nm resulting from the reaction shown. Note that two helium lines conveniently provide the wavelength calibration necessary to extract measurements from the spectrum.
Spin-orbit splitting of the alkali D lines and the measured magnetic fields involved.
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