Newton’s rays diffracted by a hair and a small circular aperture (Ref. 2).
Calculated intensity distributions behind the circular aperture in the plane.
Calculated intensity distributions behind the circular opaque disk in the plane.
Spot of Poisson–Arago—the intensity distribution behind a coin on a detector placed at 5 m. Newton, who carried out this experiment, did not report the presence of fringes within the shadow (Ref. 2). The radius of the spot is 0.1 mm and is just visible to the naked eye.
26 energy flow lines behind the circular aperture, in agreement with the diffracted rays proposed by Newton in Fig. 1.
Energy flow lines behind the circular opaque disk give an explanation of the bright spot of Poisson–Arago.
20 energy flow lines behind the two slits. These energy flow lines give a natural explanation of the interference pattern for Young’s double slit experiment.
Change of the energy flow lines as the frequency increases: , , and . When the frequency of the light wave increases, the energy flow lines approach the straight rays of geometrical optics. These energy flow lines correspond to the definition of rays of light given by Newton.
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