The electric field of a laser pulse and its envelope. In the static Stark effect, the system responds to the instantaneous electric field. In the nonresonant dynamic Stark effect, the system responds only to the pulse envelope.
The dynamics of interest occur in the essential states. Transitions between levels and within the essential states occur via far off-resonance nonessential state . This sequence is a type of Raman transition.
An axially symmetric molecule, here shown as . The Euler angles and relate the principal axis of the molecule to the space-fixed frame. The principal axes of the molecule are shown in gray. The molecule is symmetric about the main principal axis and invariant with respect to Euler angle . The polarizabilities parallel and perpendicular to the main axis are shown. The application of a laser field linearly polarized along creates a dynamic Stark effect potential that aligns the principal axis toward the axis.
A Raman process. An input pump field excites the medium and a Stokes field is generated. In the photon perspective, a pump photon is destroyed and a Stokes photon and material phonon are created. The energy difference between pump and Stokes is the energy difference between states 1 and 2. If the pump duration is short, it may have sufficient bandwidth to simultaneously overlap states 1 and 2, thus stimulating Stokes light. States 1 and 2 are analogous to states and , respectively, in Fig. 2. See the text for more details.
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