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Corked bats, juiced balls, and humidors: The physics of cheating in baseball
3.A. M. Nathan, D. A. Russell, and L. V. Smith, “The physics of the trampoline effect in baseball and softball bats,” Engineering of Sport 5 (International Sports Engineering Association, Sheffield, England, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 38–44.
4.R. K. Adair, The Physics of Baseball, 3rd ed. (HarperCollins, New York, 2002), pp. 29–38, 97.
5.R. M. Greenwald, L. H. Penna, and J. J. Crisco, “Differences in batted ball speed with wood and aluminum bats: A batting cage study,” J. Appl. Biomech. 17, 241–252 (2001),
5.J. J. Crisco (private communication).
7.K. Koeing, N. Mitchell, T. Hannigan, and J. Clutter, “The influence of moment of inertia on baseball/softball bat swing speed,” Sports Engineering 7, 105–114 (2004).
8.L. Smith, J. Broker, and A. Nathan, in Sports Dynamics Discovery and Application, edited by A. Subic, P. Trivailo, and F. Alam (RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, 2003), pp. 12–17.
9.R. Cross and A. M. Nathan, “Performance versus moment of inertia of sporting instruments,” Sports Technology 2, 7–15 (2009).
The Cleveland Plain Dealer study was performed at the Lansmont Corporation’s bat and ball testing facility. The results were published in the September 29, 2000 issue of the newspaper and is available online from their archives. A more technical report is available at ⟨go.illinois.edu/physicsofbaseball/ClevelandPlainDealerReport.pdf
13.L. J. Briggs, “Methods for measuring the coefficient of restitution and spin of a ball,” J. Research NBS 34, 1–23 (1945)
13.The NBS study found that at about 100 mph, the COR of 1938 baseballs was 0.46 and those of 1943 baseballs was significantly lower at 0.40. The latter baseballs were almost certainly constructed from inferior wartime materials.
14.L. V. Smith and A. M. Nathan, “A determination of the dynamic response of softballs,” Sports Eng. 12, 163–169 (2010)
14.It is shown that the relevant quantity that determines the COR is the initial kinetic energy in the center-of-mass frame. The National Bureau of Standards studies13 were performed by projecting a 16 oz block of wood at 119 mph onto a stationary ball. Such an incident speed would have the same center-of-mass energy as a baseball projected at 104 mph onto an infinite mass.
15.Rawlings became the official supplier of Major League baseballs starting in 1976. Finley owned the A’s in 1960–1980. MacPhail was American League President in 1974–1984.
16.P. Palmer and G. Gillette, The Baseball Encyclopedia (Barnes & Noble, New York, 2004), pp. 1552–1607.
17.E. L. Meyer and J. L. Bohn, “Influence of a humidor on the aerodynamics of baseball,” Am. J. Phys. 76, 1015–1021 (2008) (See Table I for a comparative study of various statistics before and after implementation of the humidor.).
18.D. T. Kagan and D. Atkinson, “The coefficient of restitution of baseballs as a function of relative humidity,” Phys. Teach. 42, 89–92 (2004).
19.P. J. Drane and J. A. Sherwood, in Engineering of Sport 5, edited by M. Hubbard, R. D. Mehta, and J. M. Pallis (International Sports Engineering Association, Sheffield, England, 2004), Vol. 2, pp. 59–65.
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