Pedagogical content knowledge as the intersection of content and pedagogical knowledge. Adapted from Ref. 12.
Summary of possible TA preparation models, arranged by increasing student-centeredness.
Weekly structure of study A (4 weeks).
Weekly structure of study B (13 weeks). Note that the prompts from study A have been incorporated into preparation and the ordering of preparation components has been changed.
Tutorial pretest question from the “Buoyancy” pretest with added follow-up question.
Predicted (“Pre-prep” and “Pre-teaching”) and observed (“Post-teaching”) student difficulties for the “Conservation of angular momentum” tutorial (week 7). Only instructors who responded to all three prompts are included (N = 7). C1: Application of L to student-wheel system; C2: direction of L vector; C3: conservation of L as a vector; C4: C.O.M. motion in collision; C5: distinguishing angular/linear momentum; C6: non-rotating object can have L; C7: L defined with respect to a point. For further discussion, see Spike and Finkelstein.20
Predicted and observed student difficulties for all weeks, reported as a fraction of all responses for that survey (N = 471 for pre-prep, N = 509 for pre-teaching, N = 477 for post-teaching). Error bars represent the standard error on the proportion.
Wording of survey prompts.
Sample IA responses before and after preparation.
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