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Scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials
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10.1119/1.4817309
/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/11/10.1119/1.4817309
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/11/10.1119/1.4817309

Figures

Image of Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross-sectional view of an impact crater of diameter formed by a falling sphere of diameter that loses kinetic energy during the impact. Here, is the gravitational field strength and is the granular material density.

Image of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Impact crater images. An experimental crater in playground sand with a diameter of 5.7 cm (top) and the Barringer Meteor Crater in northern Arizona with a diameter of 1.2 km (bottom, credit: U.S. Geological Survey/photo by D. Roddy). 11

Image of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental crater-diameter results in the dimensionless form of Eq. (1) . The solid line has a slope of 1/4. Representative error bars are shown for the measurement with the largest value of /. Reference results for the Barringer Meteor Crater (more than 16 orders of magnitude greater impact energy) are shown at the upper right.

Tables

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Table I.

Characteristics of the spheres used in the impact experiments.

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/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/11/10.1119/1.4817309
2013-11-01
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/11/10.1119/1.4817309
10.1119/1.4817309
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