Zeeman splitting of the molecular energy levels (in temperature units) as a function of the magnetic field intensity. High-field and low-field seeker states are denoted, respectively, by solid lines (red) and dashed lines (blue); gray dotted lines illustrate the appearance of Zeeman splitting in higher energy levels. These results have been obtained using realistic values in the simulation: 24 (rotational constant), (spin-rotation interaction), and (spin-spin coupling).
Magnetic field configurations for a quadrupole trap (a) and an Ioffe-Pritchard trap (b). The arrows indicate the directions of the currents flowing around the coils (tori) and through the straight wires [gray bars along the z-direction in (b)].
Arrow map of the magnetic field of Eq. (16) , generated by the four parallel wires of Fig. 2(b) . The lengths of the arrows indicate the intensity of field, while the direction of each current is indicated by a dot (outward) or a cross (inward). The length of each arrow is proportional to the field intensity at the point where it is placed. The field in the neighborhood of the origin (0, 0) is described to a good approximation by Eq. (18) , obtained from the assumption .
Magnitude of the magnetic field described by Eq. (21) . This is the field generated by the four parallel wires of an Ioffe-Pritchard trap [see Fig. 2(b) ] along the y = 0 line for three different values of the homogeneous field: (lower dotted line), (middle dashed line), and (upper solid line). The parameters considered are typical values: and d = 0.01 m. The horizontal line in each case indicates the limit where the magnetic field is 10 mT above the corresponding minimum.
(a) Magnitude of the magnetic field along the x-direction (for y = z = 0) for a quadrupole trap (dotted line), a TOP trap (dashed line), and an Ioffe-Pritchard trap (solid line). (b) Same as in (a) but along the z-direction (for x = y = 0). (c) Effective particle density associated with these traps as a function of the temperature (the same convention of line types as in (a)and (b) has been followed). This density has been obtained as the inverse of the trap effective volume obtained from Eq. (29) . The numerical parameters for the three panels are: Quadrupole trap: a = 0.01 m, b = 0.0125 m, and ; TOP trap: a = 0.01 m, b = 0.0125 m, , and ; Ioffe-Pritchard trap: a = 0.01 m, b = 0.0125 m, d = 0.01 m, , and .
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