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Modern cosmology: Interactive computer simulations that use recent observational surveys
2. A. G. Riess et al., “ Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant,” Astron. J. 116, 1009–1038 (1998);
2. B. P. Schmidt et al., “ The high-Z supernova search: Measuring cosmic deceleration and global curvature of the universe,” Astrophys. J. 507, 46–63 (1998).
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11. E. Rykoff
, “ CosmoCalc
,” (Version 2.4) [Mobile application software], retrieved from <http://itunes.apple.com
14.The redshift z is defined by , where and are the observed and emitted wavelengths, respectively, for the source.
15. L. Bergström and A. Goobar, Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, 2nd ed. (Springer-Praxis, Chichester, UK, 2004), pp. 1–363.
16.This is only comparatively speaking; the relationship between time and redshift can only be calculated once a specific model is chosen. See Sec. II B.
17.Actually, we evolve the scale factor a and calculate the time t (in Gyrs), but switch the x- and y-axes, since this is the more common convention.
18. L. Anderson et al., “ The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey: Baryon acoustic oscillations in the data release 9 spectroscopic galaxy survey,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427(4), 3435–3467 (2012);
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Here we only include a partial list of the most recent surveys for each of the observations, whereas CosmoEJS contains several surveys for each observation. R. Amanullah et al.
, “ Spectra and light curves of six type la Supernovae at and the Union2 Compilation
,” Astrophys. J. 716
20. H. Wei, “ Observational constraints on cosmological models with the updated long gamma-ray bursts,” J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. JCAP1008, 020–1020–24 (2010);
21.It is important to compare the model both numerically and by visually inspecting the plots, but also to make sure the model is physical (e.g., is unphysical, due to no matter).
23.A detailed derivation of these models and an analysis for some special cases was recently made available. See Refs. 5–7.
24.In cosmology, the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime metric describes a homogenous and isotropic spacetime. When using the FLRW metric, the equation of motion is referred to as the Friedmann equation.
25. W. Rindler, Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological, 2nd ed. (Oxford U.P., New York, 2006).
Recent data (see Refs. 4 and 18–20
, although a more precise survey—the CMB ESA PLANCK satellite, available online at <http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Planck/index.html/
>—may uncover a slight offset which can be modified in the source code. See supplementary information in Ref. 9
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