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Fundamentals of PV efficiency interpreted by a two-level model
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10.1119/1.4812594
/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4812594
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4812594
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Figures

Image of Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A collection of 2-level atoms; (b) a 2-level energy system illuminated by photons; (c) the Bose-Einstein distribution.

Image of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The energy band for the 2-level system; (b) the energy flux balance of a “photon engine.”

Image of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

An ensemble of non-interacting 2-level systems having different energy gaps.

Image of Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

An ensemble of interacting 2-level systems having different energy gaps.

Image of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Angle mismatch between the sun and the solar cell; (b) the open-circuit voltage limit of a PV as a function of bandgap. The blue solid line represents the relationship given by Eq. (15) . The experimental results (circles) are taken from Ref. .

Image of Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) A single state occupied by a photon (approximately) normally incident from the sun; (b) momentum scattering of the photon inside the solar cell. Note that the photon incidence and re-emission problem is intrinsically three-dimensional, as the atoms can absorb and reradiate in 3D patterns; the 2D scheme shown above is used to illustrate the concept of angle entropy.

Image of Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Angle broadening of incident photons using a solar concentrator; (b) a scheme limiting the emission angle of the PV system.

Image of Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic diagram showing the operation of an excitonic solar cell.

Image of Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

A PV system isotropically illuminated by LEDs.

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/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4812594
2013-09-01
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Fundamentals of PV efficiency interpreted by a two-level model
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4812594
10.1119/1.4812594
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