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A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system
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10.1119/1.4816242
/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4816242
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4816242

Figures

Image of Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The experimental setup used for PA imaging. The tank with the ICG sample is filled with either water or an intralipid solution. The function generator provides a sinusoidal voltage signal to the driver of the laser diode. A synchronized TTL signal is sent to the lock-in amplifier and serves as the reference signal. The laser diode emits a modulated light beam that is focused on the sample. A shutter is used to block the laser in order to measure the background noise. The modulated light is absorbed by the sample, causing the emission of PA waves, which are detected by the ultrasound transducer. The output voltage signal from the transducer is amplified, filtered, and sent to the lock-in amplifier.

Image of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the modulation circuit used in our setup. The function generator provides DC and AC power to the circuit. The resistor and the potentiometer are chosen to provide a modulated current within the current range of the laser diode. The photodiode detector and oscilloscope are used to verify the modulation.

Image of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The relation between the measured signal (vector 1), the background (vector 2), and PA (vector 3) signals.

Image of Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The normalized PA signal strength as a function of the horizontal position of the sample relative to the co-axis of the laser beam and the UST. The data were obtained with a 1 MHz (dashed curve) and a 2.25 MHz (solid curve) UST. The dashed vertical lines show the inner diameters and the solid vertical lines show the outer diameters of the phantom tube that is filled with 0.5 g/l ICG solution at a depth of 1.9 mm in a 1% intralipid solution. The diameter of the collimated laser beam is ∼1.0 mm. The error bars represent the standard deviation of 4 measurements.

Image of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The maximum PA signal strength as a function of the tube depth acquired with a 2.25 MHz UST in a 1% intralipid solution. The diameter of the laser beam is ∼1.0 mm and the ICG concentration is 0.5 g/l. The error bars represent the standard deviation of 4 measurements.

Image of Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The maximum PA signal strength as a function of the ICG concentration acquired with a 2.25 MHz UST in a 1% intralipid solution at a depth of 1.9 mm. The diameter of the collimated laser beam is ∼1.0 mm. The error bars represent the standard deviation of 5 measurements.

Image of Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) A C-mode ultrasound image and (b) a C-mode PA image of the ICG filled tube. The UST frequency is 2.25 MHz, the ICG concentration is 2 g/l, and the intralipid concentration is 1%. (c). An ultrasound B-mode image showing the cross section of the same ICG filled tube. The white dotted line indicates the depth of the C-mode images in (a) and (b). Note that the depth of zero in this figure is the surface of the UST, which is different from the definition of the tube depth). (d) A diagram to show the B-mode and C-mode imaging planes. The B-mode image is parallel to the x-z plane and the C-mode is parallel to the x-y plane (close to the right-side edge of the tube).

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The major components of the PA system and their features, costs, and possible substitutes. The listed prices are for guidance only.

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/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4816242
2013-09-01
2014-04-23
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A cost-efficient frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging system
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aapt/journal/ajp/81/9/10.1119/1.4816242
10.1119/1.4816242
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