Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. L. E. Kinsler, “ Imaging of underwater objects,” Am. J. Phys. 13(4), 255257 (1945).
2. A. A. Bartlett, R. Lucero, and G. O. Johnson, “ Note on a common virtual image,” Am. J. Phys. 52(7), 640643 (1984).
3. I. Galili and F. Goldberg, “ Using a linear approximation for single-surface refraction to explain some virtual image phenomena,” Am. J. Phys. 64(3), 256264 (1996).
4. G. Horvath, K. Buchta, and D. Variju, “ Looking into the water with oblique head tilting: revision of the aerial binocular imaging of underwater object,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(6), 11201131 (2003).
5. A. Barta and G. Horvath, “ Underwater binocular imaging of aerial objects versus the position of eyes relative to the flat water surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20(12), 23702377 (2003).
6. B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “ History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wave front sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573S577 (2001).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Images formed by an underwater object from light rays refracted in the sagittal and tangential planes are located at different positions for an oblique viewing position. The overlapping of these two images from the observer's perspective will thus prevent the image-splitting astigmatism from being directly observable. In this work, we present a heuristic method to experimentally visualize the astigmatism. A point light source is used as an underwater object and the emerging wave front is recorded using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. The wave front is found to deform from a circular paraboloid to an elliptic paraboloid as the viewing position changes from normal to oblique. Using geometric optics, we derive an analytical expression for the image position as a function of the rotating angle of an arm used to carry the wave-front sensor in our experimental setup. The measured results are seen to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd