Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
W. E. Lamb, Jr., “ Anti-photon,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 7784 (1995).
G. I. Taylor, “ Interference fringes with feeble light,” Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 15, 114115 (1909).
A. J. Dempster and H. F. Batho, “ Light quanta and interference,” Phys. Rev. 30, 644648 (1927).
R. P. Feynman, The Character of Physical Law—Part 6 Probability and Uncertainty, A Series of Lectures Recorded ( Cornell University, Ithaca, NY).
N. David Mermin, “ Is the moon there when nobody looks? Reality and the quantum theory,” Phys. Today 38(4), 3847 (1985).
David J. Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed. ( Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2005), pp. 24.
See supplementary material at for video versions of the data shown in this article.[Supplementary Material]
Wikipedia, “ Spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” <>.
J. Schneeloch and J. C. Howell, “ Introduction to the transverse spatial correlations in spontaneous parametric down-conversion through the biphoton birth zone,” J. Opt. 18, 053501 (2016).
W. H. Zurek, “ Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical—revisited,” in Progress in Mathematical Physics, edited by B. Duplantier, J. M. Raimond, and V. Rivasseau ( Birkhauser Boston, Cambridge, MA, 2007), Vol. 48, pp. 131.
W. H. Zurek, “ Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical,” Phys. Today 44(10), 3644 (1991).
W. Tittel, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “ Long-distance bell-type tests using energy-time entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 41504163 (1999).
It is because of their weak interaction with their environments (in transparent media, at least) that photon-based experiments are preferred over electron transport studies for pedagogical labs. In fact, because BBO is highly transparent down-conversion will only occur a very tiny fraction of the time at the light intensities used in our experiments. Roughly one in 1011 photons gets “down-converted,” corresponding to a very small nonlinear optical susceptibility (i.e., the coefficient), even for a highly polarizable crystal such as BBO. (For this material is negligible.).
F. M. Miatto, D. Giovannini, J. Romero, S. Franke-Arnold, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, “ Bounds and optimisation of orbital angular momentum bandwidths within parametric down-conversion systems,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 178183 (2012).
Andor Technology Web Site introducing iStar intensified cameras,” <>.
Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA) Web Site for dissemination of physics instructional lab materials beyond the first year of university at <>.
P. Kolenderski, C. Scarcella, K. D. Johnsen, D. R. Hamel, C. Holloway, L. K. Shalm, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, K. J. Resch, and T. Jennewein, “ Time-resolved double-slit interference pattern measurement with entangled photons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4685 (2014).
S. S. R. Oemrawsingh, W. J. van Drunen, E. R. Eliel, and J. P. Woerdman, “ Two-dimensional wave-vector correlations in spontaneous parametric downconversion explored with an intensified CCD camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 23912395 (2002).
R. Fickler, M. Krenn, R. Lapkiewicz, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “ Real-time imaging of quantum entanglement,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1914 (2013).
P. Llull, X. Liao, X. Yuan, J. Yang, D. Kittle, L. Carin, G. Sapiro, and D. J. Brady, “ Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging,” Opt. Express 21, 1052610545 (2013).
J. H. Shapiro and R. W. Boyd, “ The physics of ghost imaging,” Quantum Inf. Process. 11, 949993 (2012).
P. A. Morris, R. S. Aspden, J. E. C. Bell, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “ Imaging with a small number of photons,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5913 (2015).
W. Rueckner and J. Peidle, “ Young's double-slit experiment with single photons and quantum eraser,” Am. J. Phys. 81, 951958 (2013).
L. Zhang, L. Neves, J. S. Lundeen, and I. A. Walmsley, “ A characterization of the single-photon sensitivity of an electron multiplying charge-coupled device,” J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 114011 (2009).
L. Basano and P. Ottonello, “ Ghost imaging: Open secrets and puzzles for undergraduates,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 343351 (2007).
D. V. Strekalov, A. V. Sergienko, D. N. Klyshko, and Y. H. Shih, “ Observation of two-photon ‘ghost’ interference and diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 36003603 (1995).
R. S. Aspden, D. S. Tasca, A. Forbes, R. W. Boyd, and M. J. Padgett, “ Experimental demonstration of Klyshko's advanced-wave picture using a coincidence-count based, camera-enabled imaging system,” J. Mod. Opt. 61, 547551 (2014).
E. J. S. Fonseca, P. H. Souto Ribeiro, S. Padua, and C. H. Monken, “ Quantum interference by a nonlocal double slit,” Phys. Rev. A 60, 15301533 (1999).
Daniel V. Schroeder, An Introduction to Thermal Physics ( Addison Wesley, San Francisco, CA, 2000), Chap. 7.
E. M. Purcell, “ The question of correlation between photons in coherent light rays,” Nature 178, 14491450 (1956).
R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “ Interferometry of the intensity fluctuations in light I. Basic theory: the correlation between photons in coherent beams of radiation,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 242, 300324 (1957).
Alain Aspect and Philippe Grangier, “ Fifty Years Later: When Gedanken Experiments Become Real Experiments,” in Proceedings of the Niels Bohr Centennial Symposium, edited by H. Feschbach, T. Matsui, and A. Oleson ( Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur, Switzerland, 1988).
J. J. Thorn, M. S. Neel, V. W. Donato, G. S. Bergreen, R. E. Davies, and M. Beck, “ Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 12101219 (2004).
E. J. Galvez, C. H. Holbrow, M. J. Pysher, J. W. Martin, N. Courtemanche, L. Heilig, and J. Spencer, “ Interference with correlated photons: Five quantum mechanics experiments for undergraduates,” Am. J. Phys. 73, 127140 (2005).
B. J. Pearson and D. P. Jackson, “ A hands-on introduction to single photons and quantum mechanics for undergraduates,” Am. J. Phys. 78, 471484 (2010).
E. J. Galvez, “ Resource letter SPE-1: Single-photon experiments in the undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 82, 10181028 (2014).
M. Beck, Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Experiment ( Oxford U.P., Oxford, 2012), Lab 2.
D. Prutchi and S. R. Prutchi, Exploring Quantum Physics Through Hands-On Projects ( Wiley, New York, 2012).
D. Dehlinger and M. W. Mitchell, “ Entangled photon apparatus for the undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 898902 (2002).
D. Dehlinger and M. W. Mitchell, “ Entangled photons, nonlocality, and bell inequalities in the undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 70, 903910 (2002).
J. A. Carlson, M. D. Olmstead, and M. Beck, “ Quantum mysteries tested: An experiment implementing Hardy's test of local realism,” Am. J. Phys. 74, 180186 (2006).
Additional videos and experiment-based resources for teaching modern physics at <>.
J. Carvioto-Lagos, G. Armendariz P, V. Velazquez, E. Lopez-Moreno, M. Grether, and E. J. Galvez, “ The Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in the undergraduate laboratory,” Eur. J. Phys. 33, 18431850 (2012).
J. M. Ashby, P. D. Schwarz, and M. Schlosshauer, “ Delayed-choice quantum eraser for the undergraduate laboratory,” Am. J. Phys. 84(33), 95105 (2016).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Commercially available cameras do not have a low-enough dark noise to directly capture double-slit interference at the single photon level. In this work, camera noise levels are significantly reduced by activating the camera only when the presence of a photon has been detected by the independent detection of a time-correlated photon produced via parametric down-conversion. This triggering scheme provides the improvement required for direct video imaging of Young's double-slit experiment with single photons, allowing clarified versions of this foundational demonstration. We present video data of the evolving interference patterns. Also, we introduce variations on this experiment aimed at promoting discussion of the role spatial coherence plays in such a measurement, emphasizing complementary aspects of single-photon measurement and highlighting the roles of transverse position and momentum correlations between down-converted photons, including examples of “ghost” imaging and diffraction.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd