Full text loading...
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Origin of Bird Flight: A Physics Viewpoint
1.See, for example, K. Padian and L. M. Chiappe, “The origin of birds and their flight,” Sci. Am. 278, 38–47 (Feb. 1998).
2.See, for example, U. M. Norberg, “Evolution of vertebrate flight: An aerodynamic model for the transition from gliding to active flight,” Am. Nat. 126, 303–327 (1985).
3.C. A. Long, G. P. Zhang, and T. F. George, “Physical and evolutionary problems in take-off runs of bipedal winged vertebrates,” Archaeopteryx 20, 63–71 (2002).
4.C. A. Long, G. P. Zhang, T. F. George, and C. F. Long, “Air resistance and the origin of vertebrate flight,” World Sci. Eng. Acad. Soc. T. Bio. Biomed. 1, 305–310 (2004).
5.C. A. Long, G. P. Zhang, T. F. George, and C. F. Long, “Physical theory, origin of flight, and a synthesis proposed for birds,” J. Theor. Bio. 224, 9–26 (2003).
6.U. Norberg, Vertebrate Flight (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).
7.W. G. Pritchard and J. K. Pritchard, “Mathematical models for running,” Am. Sci. 82, 546–553 (1994).
7.For a more mathematical treatment, see A. J. Ward-Smith, “A mathematical theory of running, based on the first law of thermodynamics, and its application to the performance of world-class athletes,” J. Biomech. 18, 337–349 (1985).
8.P. Burgers and L. M. Chiappe, “The wing of Archaeopteryx as a primary thrust generator,” Nature 399, 60–62 (1999).
9.P. Wellnhofer, “Archaeopteryx,” Sci. Am. 262, 70–77 (May 1990).
10.X. Xu, Z. Zhou, X. Wang, X. Kuang, F. Zhang, and X. Du, “Four-winged dinosaurs from china,” Nature 421, 335–340 (2003).
10.For a less technical discussion, see R. O. Prum, “Dinosaurs take to the air,” Nature 421, 323–324 (2003).
Article metrics loading...