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Objects in Telescope Are Farther Than They AppearHow diffraction tricked Galileo into mismeasuring distances to the stars
1.S. Drake, Galileo Galilei — Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, 2nd ed. (University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1967), p. 327. Available online via Google Book Search.
2.Galileo used as units of angular size measurement degrees, minutes (1/60 of a degree), seconds (1/60 of a minute), and “third-order divisions” or thirds (1/60 of a scond).
3.See Ref. 1, p. 359.
4.D.W. Hughes, “Galileo's measurement of the diameter of a star, and of the eye's pupil,” J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 111, 266–270 (2001). Full text available online via the NASA/SAO ADS: http://adsabs.harvard.edu.
5.See Ref. 1, pp. 359–360.
6.S. Drake and C.T. Kowal, “Galileo's sighting of Neptune,” Sci. Am. 243 (6), 74–81 (1980).
7.E.M. Standish and A.M. Nobili, “Galileo's observations of Neptune,” Balt. Astron. 6, 97–104 (1997). Full text available online via the NASA/SAO ADS: http://adsabs.harvard.edu.
8.C.M. Graney, “On the accuracy of Galileo's observations,” Balt. Astron. 16, 443–449 (2007). Full text available online via the NASA/SAO ADS: http://adsabs.harvard.edu.
9.L. Ondra, “A new view of Mizar,” Sky Telescope 108, 72—75 (July 2004). A version of this article is available via the author's web page (http://www.leosondra.cz/en/mizar/).
10.J.B. Sidgwick, Amateur Astronomer's Handbook (Dover Publications, New York, 1980), p. 40. Available online via Google Book Search.
11.William Herschel investigated the spurious sizes of stars viewed through a telescope in the late 1700s; the Poisson/Fresnel discussion arose in the early 1800s.
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