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1.The Fresnel equations quantify the reflection as a function of the refractive indices.
2.M. Tscherning, Physiologic Optics, 3rd ed. (Keystone Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 1920), pp. 50–56. (Available at: www.books.
3.G. J. Bull, “Lid pressure on the cornea,” in Transactions of the Eighth International Ophthalmological Congress, Second Sitting (University Press, Edinburgh, 1894), pp. 107–124. (Available at:
4.Ronald Edge and E. R. Jones, “Why do red and blue lines move in opposite directions?” Phys. Teach. 22, 462464 (Oct. 1984).
5.R. D. Edge, “The optics of the eye lens,” Phys. Teach. 27, 392393 (May 1989).
6.You may notice a slight displacement in the vertical black line due to the vertical alignment of the subpixels on a color LCD screen. I find I am able to use the chromatic aberration in my eye to just about cancel this out.
7.David A. Atchison and George Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Elsevier Health Sciences, Philadelphia, 2000), p. 182.
8.Tos T. J. M. Berendschot and Dirk van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci. 47, 709714 (2006). (Available at:
9.There are few to no receptors for blue light in the very center‐most part of our vision and this also helps counter the effects of chromatic aberration.
10.Giles Skey Brindley, Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway, 2nd ed. (Edward Arnold Ltd., London, 1970), pp. 140–141.
11.Bill Reid, “Haidinger's brush,” Phys. Teach. 28, 598 (Dec. 1990).
12.Thomas J. T. P. van den Berg, Michiel P. J. Hagenouw, and Joris E. Coppens, “The ciliary corona: Physical model and simulation of the fine needles radiating from point light sources,” Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci. 46, 26272632 (2005). (Available at: www.
13.You can also see the shadow of the wrinkle in the cornea that results from squinting.
14.Jearl Walker, “‘Floaters’: Visual artifacts that result from blood cells in front of the retina,” Sci. Am. 246 (4), 150162 (April 1982).
15.Harvey E. White and Paul Levatin, “‘Floaters’ in the eye,”