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Hooke's Law and the Stiffness of a Plastic Spoon
2.D. Halliday, R. Resnick and J. Walker, Fundamentals of Physics, 9th ed. extended (Wiley, New York, 2011).
3.A. Giambattista, B. Richardson, and R. Richardson, Physics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010).
4.The finite element model shown in Fig. 3 was created using FEMAP with NX Nastran by Cori Warren and modified by Jill M. Pestka, used with permission.
5.In order to fully describe the complex bending behavior of the spoon, Hooke's law must be extended to three dimensions. In this case both Young's modulus and the shear modulus are required in such a model due to the presence of shear, tensile, and compressive motion in the system. Also, the structural characteristic of the spoon (the shape of the shaft and cup) strongly influence its behavior. Thus, while the given experiment produces excellent results for the one-dimensional stiffness constant, the finite element model incorporates all of these properties in order to reproduce the overall behavior of the spoon.