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Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker
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Image of Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A still frame of a candle flame motion in front of a sinusoidally driven loudspeaker cone (on the left).

Image of Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The experimental setup.

Image of Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

“Barely shaking” mode is the smallest distinctively observable flame motion. Flame bifurcation is just noticeable in this still picture.

Image of Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Longitudinal oscillation of a flame—the sought-after instructional situation.

Image of Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Bifurcated flame with peak-to-peak amplitude ≥ 2 mm.

Image of Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

“Longitudinal with leaning” mode of the flame behavior.

Image of Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

“Leaning” mode of the flame behavior (close-up of Fig. 1 with superimposed ruler).

Image of Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Amplitude-frequency loudspeaker input with corresponding areas of different flame behaviors.

Image of Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Simultaneous effect on flames in front of the top and the bottom part of the loudspeaker at 67 Hz and 5.8 V.

Image of Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The simultaneous effects on flames laterally positioned in front of the right and left side of the loudspeaker at 38 Hz and 6.3 V.

Image of Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Candle in front of a loudspeaker.

Image of Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

The loudspeaker membrane shape can be easily changed (left) and a “smoke detector” (right) introduces a range of new options for observation.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Lowest amplitudes at which different flame behavior modes appear, at each of the specified frequencies.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker