Gold leaf electroscope attached to parallel plate capacitor.
Looking through the electroscope at the edge of the charged capacitor plates.
Without changing the charge, the plates are moved apart. The increased spreading of the gold leaves shows that the voltage difference between the plates has increased.
Using Gauss's law to calculate .
Positive plate being attracted by the negative plate. (The fields of both plates cancel each other outside the plates.)
Start with the plates close together and no gravitational potential energy ( ).
As the vacuum energy increases, gravitational potential energy decreases.
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