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Origins of Newton's First Law
2. Eugene Hecht, Physics in Perspective (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980), pp. 31–92.
3. H. J. J. Winter, “The Arabic Achievement in Physics,” in Toward Modern Science, Vol. 1, edited by Robert M. Palter (The Noonday Press, New York, 1961), p. 171.
4.Ref. 3, Ernest A. Moody, “Laws of motion in medieval physics,” p. 220.
5.To prove the absurdity of vacuum, Aristotle argued: “[W]hy should it [i.e., a body set in motion in vacuum] stop in one place rather than in another? So either it will be resting or it will of necessity be travelling without end, unless obstructed by something more powerful.” Physics, translated by Hippocrates Apostle (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1969), p. 73.
6. Johannes Kepler, Somnium, translated by Edward Rosen (University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1967), p. 73.
7. Galileo Galilei, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, translated by Henry Crew and Alfonso deSalvio (Dover Publications, New York, 1954), pp. 170 and 215. The first word in the title (discorsi) is nowadays translated “discourses.”
9. Galileo Galilei, Dialogues Concerning the Two Chief World Systems—Ptolemaic and Copernican, translated by Stillman Drake, (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967), p. 19.
11. Stillman Drake, Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo (Double-day Anchor, Garden City, NY, 1957), p. 113.
12. Alexandre Koyré, Newtonian Studies (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1965), p. 73.
15. Max Jammer, Concepts of Force (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1957), p. 119.
16. Isaac Newton, The Principia, translated by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman (University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1999), p. 100.
19. James Clerk Maxwell, Matter and Motion (Dover Publications, New York, 1991), p. 48.
22.Galileo had a similar understanding of how to add the two component velocities of a projectile.
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