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pn-homojunction formation in single fullerene films
1. Organic photovoltaics, Mechanisms, Materials and Devices, edited by S. –S. Sun and N. S. Sariciftci, published by CRC Press, New York, March (2005).
14. Precise MoO3/Ca concentrations are 3780/4670 ppm, 4750/5200 ppm, and 4910/4600 ppm for cells (a), (b), and (c), respectively.
16. Co-deposited film of Ca:C60 (1:1) showed a strong new absorption from the visible to the near infrared that can be attributed to charge transfer (CT) absorption between Ca and C60. Since the work function of Ca (1.92 eV) is considerably higher than the conduction band of C60 (4.0 eV), it is reasonable that a CT complex, C60–—Ca+, is formed. Here, the positive charge is the spatially-fixed ionized Ca donor. In the present doping condition, the negative charge on the C60- can be liberated from the positive charge by heat of room temperature, and can then move as a free electron in the conduction band.
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A pn-homojunction was fabricated in a single fullerene (C60) film containing MoO3- and Ca-doped regions. The clear observation of masking effects under light irradiation to both sides of the electrode confirmed the existence of a pn-homojunction in the bulk cell. The position of the pn-homojunction was intentionally controlled by changing the thickness of the MoO3/Ca doped regions.
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