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Upward self-poling phenomenon was observed in PbZrTiO ferroelectric films which were grown on (001) SrTiO substrate with either p-type LaSrMnO or n-type SrRuO buffered layer, or on n-type (001) Nb-SrTiO substrate. Both upward self-poling and epitaxial strain are strong in the super-thin PbZrTiO epitaxial films, while they become weak and finally disappear in thick epitaxial films or thin epitaxial films with high-density oxygen vacancies. Besides, both of them disappear in PbZrTiO polycrystalline films on Pt/TiO/SiO/Si substrate. Therefore, the main origin of upward self-poling is epitaxial strain rather than p-n/Schottky junction or charged vacancies in PbZrTiO epitaxial films here.


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