Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. H. J. Dutton, Understanding optical communications. (Prentice Hall PTR, 1998).
2. V. Mizrahi, Components and devices for optical communications based on UV-written-fiber phase gratings presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 1993.
3. J. Zhao, An object-oriented simulation program for fibre Bragg gratings, Rand Afrikaans University, 2001.
4. Y. Zhan, S. Xue, Q. Yang, S. Xiang, H. He, and R. Zhu, “A novel fiber Bragg grating high-temperature sensor Optik,” International Journal for Light and Electron Optics 119(11), 535539 (2008).
5. J. Kou, S.-j. Qiu, F. Xu, and Y.-q. Lu, “Demonstration of a compact temperature sensor based on first-order Bragg grating in a tapered fiber probe,” Opt. Express 19(19), 1845218457 (2011).
6. N. Liu, Y. Li, Y. Wang, H. Wang, W. Liang, and P. Lu, “Bending insensitive sensors for strain and temperature measurements with Bragg gratings in Bragg fibers,” Opt. Express 19(15), 1388013891 (2011).
7. H. Li, H. Yang, E. Li, Z. Liu, and K. Wei, Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating (2012).
8. M. Comanici, L. Chen, P. Kung, and L. Wang, Measurement of dynamic strain using a fiber Bragg grating-based laser sensor system presented at the Information Photonics (IP), 2011 ICO International Conference on, 2011.
9. F. Urban, J. Kadlec, R. Vlach, and R. Kuchta, “Design of a pressure sensor based on optical fiber Bragg grating lateral deformation,” Sensors 10(12), 1121211225 (2010).
10. Q. Jiang and D. Hu, “Microdisplacement sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating transversal load effect,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(9), 17761779 (2011).
11. B. Gu, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. Qian, and S. He, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Optics express 19(5), 41404146 (2011).
12. A. Stefani, W. Yuan, S. Andresen, and O. Bang, Polymer optical fiber bragg grating sensors: measuring acceleration presented at the Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT), 2010 35th Australian Conference on, 2010.
13. C. Ambrosino, P. Capoluongo, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, D. Davino, C. Visone, and A. Cusano, “Fiber bragg grating and magnetic shape memory alloy: Novel high-sensitivity magnetic Sensor,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 7(2), 228229 (2007).
14. K. Reck, E. V. Thomsen, and O. Hansen, “MEMS Bragg grating force sensor,” Optics express 19(20), 1919019198 (2011).
15. G. T. Kanellos, G. Papaioannou, D. Tsiokos, C. Mitrogiannis, G. Nianios, and N. Pleros, “Two dimensional polymer-embedded quasi-distributed FBG pressure sensor for biomedical applications,” Opt. Express 18(1), 179186 (2010).
16. M. Moccia, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, V. Galdi, P. Bevilacqua, and A. Cusano, “Opto-acoustic behavior of coated fiber Bragg gratings,” Optics express 19(20), 1884218860 (2011).
17. W. Ecke and K. Schroeder, Fiber Bragg grating optochemical sensor basing on evanescent-field interaction with surface plasmon waves presented at the The 16th International Symposium on: Smart Structures and Materials & Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, 2009.
18. H. Venghaus, “Wavelength filters in fibre optics,” Wavelength Filters in Fibre Optics 1 (2006).
19. R. W. Fallon, Fibre Bragg grating strain sensors, Aston University, 2000.
20. G. J. de Villiers, J. Treurnicht, and R. T. Dobson, “In-core high temperature measurement using fiber-Bragg gratings for nuclear reactors,” Applied Thermal Engineering 38, 143150 (2012).
21. G. C. Righini, An introduction to optoelectronic sensors. (World Scientific, 2009).
22. V. M. Sunita P. Ugale, Optimization of Apodized Fiber Bragg Grating for Sensing Applications IJCA Special Issue on Electronics, Information and Communication Engineering ICEICE(3) (December 2011).
23. Dense Wavelength-division Multiplexing (2013).
24. S. Yin, P. B. Ruffin, and F. T. S. Yu, Fiber optics sensors. (Taylor & Francis Group, 2008).
25. Jphotonics Copal™ Series FBG Thermometer_Jphotonics, Inc. Fiber Bragg Grating, FBG interrogator, FBG sensors, Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) (2013).
26. A. Cusano, P. Capoluongo, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Chirped fiber-Bragg grating as self-temperature referenced strain sensor in nonisothermal thermoset processing,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 6(1), 111117 (2006).
27. S. A. Khan and M. Islam, Chromatic dispersion compensation using linearly chirped apodized fiber Bragg grating presented at the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE), 2010 International Conference on, 2010.
28. O. Mahran, T. A. Hamdallah, M. H. Aly, and A. E. El-Samahy, “Reflectivity of Nonlinear Apodized Chirped Fiber Bragg Grating Under Water,” Journal of Applied Sciences Research 5(10), 16041610 (2009).
29. D. L. Aybatov, R. R. Kiyamova, O. G. Morozov, and E. V. Suhorukova, Distributed temperature fiber Bragg grating sensor presented at the Optical Technologies for Telecommunications 2008, 2008.
30. M. Ferchichi, M. Najjar, and H. Rezig, Design of temperature-strain tunable UDWDM, DWDM, WDM FBG filter for Passive Optical Network Access presented at the Mediterranean Winter, 2008. ICTON-MW 2008. 2nd ICTON, 2008.
31. S. P. Ugale and V. Mishra, Optimization of fiber Bragg grating length for maximum reflectivity presented at the Communications and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 2011 International Conference on, 2011.
32. Ravijot Kaur and M. Singh Bhamrah, “Effect of Grating length on Reflection Spectra of Uniform Fiber Bragg Gratings,” International Journal of Information and Telecommunication Technology 3(2) (2011).
33. I. Yulianti, S. Idrus, and A. Al-Hetar, Simulation of apodization profiles performances for unchirped fiber Bragg gratings presented at the Photonics (ICP), 2010 International Conference on, 2010.
34. S. Ugale and V. Mishra, “Fiber Bragg Grating Modeling, Characterization and Optimization with different index profiles,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2(9), 44634468 (2010).
35. M. Bass and E. W. Van Stryland, Fiber Optics Handbook: Fiber, Devices, and Systems for Optical Communications. (McGraw-Hill New York, 2002).
36. X. Li, Q. Sun, P. Shum, N. Q. Nam, T. Cheng, and D. Liu, A multi-point temperature warning sensor system with different thresholds using a multi-channel reference FBG presented at the Asia Pacific Optical Communications, 2007.
37. R. P. Haaksman, Design of a fibre optic acoustic sensor array: sensitivity and noise properties, University of Southampton, 2002.
38. Y. Zhao, R. Hou, and C. Zhou, “Writing wide bandwidth nonchirped fiber Bragg gratings with high sidelobe suppression ratio by linearly scaling apodization,” Optical Engineering 49(8), 085001085001 (2010).
39. Advanced Optics Solutions (September, 2013).
40. G. J. De Villiers, In-core temperature measurement for the PBMR using fibre-bragg gratings (University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 2009).
41. B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, A. F. Fernandez, F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, E. Hodgson, T. Shikama, T. Kakuta, A. Tomashuk, and K. Golant, “Round-robin evaluation of optical fibres for plasma diagnostics,” Fusion engineering and design 56, 917921 (2001).
42. Q. Liu, T. Tokunaga, and Z. He, “Realization of nano static strain sensing with fiber Bragg gratings interrogated by narrow linewidth tunable lasers,” Optics express 19(21), 2021420223 (2011).
43. FBGS - Draw Tower Gratings (September, 2013).
44. D. Kong, J. Chang, P. Gong, Y. Liu, B. Sun, X. Liu, P. Wang, Z. Wang, W. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Analysis and improvement of SNR in FBG sensing system,” Photonic Sensors 2(2), 148157 (2012).
45. M. Liu, E. Zhang, Z. Zhou, Y. Tan, and Y. Liu, “Measurement of Temperature Field for the Spindle of Machine Tool Based on Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors,” Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2013 (2013).
46. T. T. Tam, D. Q. Trung, T. A. Vu, L. H. Minh, and D. N. Chung, “Investigation of the embedded fiber bragg grating temperature sensor,” VNU Journal of Science Mathematics-Physics 23, 237242 (2007).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



In this work, different FBG temperature sensors are designed and evaluated with various apodization profiles. Evaluation is done under a wide range of controlling design parameters like sensor length and refractive index modulation amplitude, targeting a remarkable temperature sensing performance. New judgment techniques are introduced such as apodization window roll-off rate, asymptotic sidelobe (SL) decay level, number of SLs, and average SL level (SLav). Evaluation techniques like reflectivity, Full width at Half Maximum (FWHM), and Sidelobe Suppression Ratio (SLSR) are also used. A “apodization function is proposed, which achieves better performance like asymptotic decay of 18.4 dB/nm, high SLSR of 60 dB, high channel isolation of 57.9 dB, and narrow FWHM less than 0.15 nm. For a single accurate temperature sensor measurement in extensive noisy environment, optimum results are obtained by the Nuttall apodization profile and the new apodization function, which have remarkable SLSR. For a quasi-distributed FBG temperature sensor the Barthann and the new apodization profiles obtain optimum results. Barthann achieves a high asymptotic decay of 40 dB/nm, a narrow FWHM (less than 25 GHZ), a very low SLav of −45.3 dB, high isolation of 44.6 dB, and a high SLSR of 35 dB. The new apodization function achieves narrow FWHM of 0.177 nm, very low SL of −60.1, very low SLav of −63.6 dB, and very high SLSR of −57.7 dB. A study is performed on including an unapodized sensor among apodized sensors in a quasi-distributed sensing system. Finally, an isolation examination is performed on all the discussed apodizations and a linear relation between temperature and the Bragg wavelength shift is observed experimentally and matched with the simulated results.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd