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The resistive switching characteristics of TiO thin films were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The as-prepared TiO thin films were modulated into higher and lower resistance states by applying a local electric field. We showed that the resistive switching results from charge injection and release assisted by electro-migration of oxygen ions. An integrated model combined with filamentary and interfacial effects was utilized to elucidate the experimentally observed phenomenon.


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