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The InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with different sizes of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanobowl photonic crystal (PhC) structure has been fabricated using self-assembled monolayer nanosphere lithography. The light output power (LOP) of PhC LEDs (at 350 mA) has been enhanced by 63.5% and the emission divergence exhibits a 28.8° reduction compared to conventional LEDs without PhC structure. Current-Voltage curves have shown that these PhC structures on ITO layer will not degrade the LED electrical properties. The finite-difference time-domain simulation (FDTD) has also been performed for light extraction and emission characteristics, which is consistent with the experimental results.


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