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40.See supplementary material at for experimental and FDTD calculated spectra of different GNRs, 3D surface fitting of GNRs spectra data, and tables of characteristic parameters of the GNRs.[Supplementary Material]

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Owing to unique size- and shape- dependent localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs), the optical extinction spectroscopy method (OES) has received much attention to characterize the geometry of metal NPs by fitting experimental UV-vis-NIR spectra. In this work, we aimed to develop a more convenient and accurate OES method to characterize the structural parameters and concentration of the gold nanorods (GNRs) ensemble. The main difference between our approach and previous OES methods is that we solve this inverse spectra problem by establishing the LSPR relation equations of GNRs ensemble so that there is no need of UV-vis-NIR spectra fitting process. The aspect ratio (AR) and AR distribution can be directly retrieved from two of UV-vis-NIR spectral parameters (peak position and full width at half maximum) using the obtained relation equations. Furthermore, the relation equations are modified for applying to the more general GNRs samples by considering the plasmon shift due to the near distance dielectric sensitivity. Finally, instead of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement, we provide a more facile measure of the mass-volume concentration which can be determined from the extinction value at 400 nm. By comparing with the experimental results, it shows that the retrieved results by the relation equations are reliable.


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