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Vertical force acting on partly submerged spindly cylinders
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When an object is placed on a water surface, the air-water interface deforms and a meniscus arises due to surface tension effects, which in turn produces a lift force or drag force on the partly submerged object. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of the vertical force acting on spindly cylinders in contact with a water surface. A simplified 2-D model is presented, and the profile of the curved air-water interface and the vertical force are computed using a numerical method. A parametric study is performed to determine the effects of the cylinder center distance, inclined angle, static contact angle, and radius on the vertical force. Several key conclusions are derived from the study: (1) Although the lift force increases with the cylinder center distance, cylinders with smaller center distances can penetrate deeper below the water surface before sinking, thereby obtaining a larger maximum lift force; (2) An increase in the inclined angle reduces the lift force, which can enable the lower cylinders fall more deeply before sinking; (3) While the effect of static contact angle is limited for angles greater than 90°, hydrophobicity allows cylinders to obtain a larger lift force and load capacity on water; (4) The lift force increases rapidly with cylinder radius, but an increase in radius also increases the overall size and weight of cylinders and decreases the proportion of the surface tension force. These findings may prove helpful in the design of supporting legs of biologically-inspired miniature aquatic devices, such as water strider robots.
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