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Low-valence layered nickelates are a structural analog to the superconducting cuprates and possess interesting properties. In this work, we have systematically studied the electronic structure of La Ni O using first-principles calculations. Our results reveal that the Ni-3 3 2 2 orbital state is active and evolves from discrete molecular levels to a continuous solid band and its filling varies as the dimensionality (or ) increases. The two-dimensional (2D) La Ni O and La Ni O are thus found to have a molecular insulating state. In contrast, the 3D LaNiO is metallic and its 3 2 2 band surprisingly becomes 3D due to the Ni-La hybridization, and the La-5 orbital also forms a 2D metallic band. Therefore, La Ni O is a dimensionality-controlled insulator-metal crossover system.


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