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Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires
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35.For simplicity we can also take directly anharmonic decay rate including the Umklapp and normal three phonon scattering rate from experiment data [R. Cuscó, et al., Phys. Rev. B 75, 165202 (2007)] τiA = 1/(1/τiN + τiU) = 1.12, 0.62 and 0.59 ps for E2high, A1(LO) and E1(LO) modes respectively. The reason is that the contribution of anharmonic scattering to thermal conductivity can be neglected comparing with surface roughness or point defect scattering.
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The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga+) implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga+ implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 103 Ω−1m−1 to 1.46 × 104 Ω−1m−1 and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm−1K−1 to 1.22 Wm−1K−1 for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga+ implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga+ point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga+-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.
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