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Heterogeneous delays making parents synchronized: A coupled maps on Cayley tree model
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We study the phase synchronized clusters in the diffusively coupled maps on the Cayley tree networks for heterogeneous delay values. Cayley tree networks comprise of two parts: the inner nodes and the boundary nodes. We find that heterogeneous delays lead to various cluster states, such as; (a) cluster state consisting of inner nodes and boundary nodes, and (b) cluster state consisting of only boundary nodes. The former state may comprise of nodes from all the generations forming self-organized cluster or nodes from few generations yielding driven clusters depending upon on the parity of heterogeneous delay values. Furthermore, heterogeneity in delays leads to the lag synchronization between the siblings lying on the boundary by destroying the exact synchronization among them. The time lag being equal to the difference in the delay values. The Lyapunov function analysis sheds light on the destruction of the exact synchrony among the last generation nodes. To the end we discuss the relevance of our results with respect to their applications in the family business as well as in understanding the occurrence of genetic diseases.
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