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1. T. T. Brown, “A method of and an apparatus or machine for producing force ormotion,” British Patent 300311 (1928).
2.A ‘youtube’ movie of the first model levitating in our lab
3. M. Tajmar, “Biefeld–Brown Effect: Misinterpretation of Corona Wind Phenomena,” AIAA Journal 42(2) (2004).
4. L. Zhao and K. Adamiak, “EHD flow in air produced by electric corona discharge in pin–plate configuration,” Journal of Electrostatics 63, 337350 (2005).
5. Lin Zhao and Kazimierz Adamiak, “Numerical analysis of forces in an electrostatic levitation unit,” Journal of Electrostatics 63, 729734 (2005).
6. L. Zhao, K. Adamiak, “EHD gas flow in electrostatic levitation unit,” Journal of Electrostatics 64, 639645 (2006).
7. Reuven Ianconescu, Daniela Sohar, and Moshe Mudrik, “An analysis of the Brown- Biefeld effect,” Journal of Electrostatics 69, 512521 (2011).
8. Ma Chen, Lu Rong-de, Ye Bang-jiao, “Surface aerodynamic model of the lifter,” Journal of Electrostatics 71(2), 134139 (2013).
9. Francis X. Canning, Cory Melcher, and Edwin Winet, “Asymmetrical Capacitors for Propulsion,” NASA, NASA/CR—2004-213312 (2004).
10. Jack Wilson, Hugh D. Perkins, and William K. Thompson, “An Investigation of Ionic Wind Propulsion,” NASA, NASA/TM—2009-215822 (2009).

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The Biefeld-Brown is a fascinating effect with which levitation can be reached without moving or rotating elements. Static voltage is applied between asymmetric electrodes and a force towards the small electrode is generated. This effect is studied experimentally in this paper. Using this effect a set of experiments is conducted trying to clarify the relation of the model geometry to the induced force. The results show clear relations of the generated force to the model structure and dimensions. As the asymmetry is stronger, the force is stronger. According to the experimental results, a set of preferred parameters is given to strength the effect. Choosing the geometrical properties properly led to improvement of factor ∼9 in the generated force and efficiency. Nevertheless, some results provides contradictions to earlier models of electrohydrodynamicmic (EHD) describing the effect and reveal unresolved questions regarding this effect.


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