Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.V. A. Dao, H. Choi, J. Heo, H. Park, K. Yoon, Y. Lee, Y. Kim, N. Lakshminarayan, and J. Yi, Curr. Appl. Phys 10, S506 (2010).
2.S. K. Choi and J. Lee, J.Vac.Sci.Technol 5, A19 (2001).
3.Z. Erjing, Z. Weijia, L. Jun, Y. Dongjie, H. J. Jacques, and Z. Jing, Vacuum 86, 290 (2011).
4.C. Y. Wu, B. T. Lin, Y. J. Zhang, Z. Q. Li, and J. J. Lin, Phys. Rev. B 85, 104204 (2012).
5.I. Hotovy, J. Pezodlt, M. Kadlecikova, T. Kups, L. Spiess, J. Breza, E. Sakalauskas, R. Goldhahn, and V. Rehacek, Thin Solid Films 518, 4508 (2010).
6.S. Calnan and A. N. Tiwari, Thin Solid Films 518, 1839 (2010).
7.V. Malathy, S. Sivaranjani, V. S. Vidhya, T. Balasubramanian, J. Joseph Prince, C. Sanjeeviraja, and M. Jayachandran, J.Mater.Sci: Mater Electron 21, 1299 (2010).
8.J. M. Gaskell and D. W. Sheel, Thin Solid Films 520, 4110 (2012).
9.M. Himmerlich, M. Koufaki, Ch. Mauder, G. Ecke, V. Cimalla, J. A. Schaefer, E. Aperathitis, and S. Krischok, Surf. Sci. 601, 4082 (2007).
10.M. Gulen, G. Yildirim, S. Bal, A. Varilci, I. Belenli, and M. Oz, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 23, 928 (2012).
11.V. Vasu and A. Subrahmanyam, Semicond.Sci.Technol 7, 320 (1992).
12.M. Nisha, S. Anusha, A. Antony, R. Manoj, and M. K. Jeyaraj, Appl.Surf. Sci 252, 1430 (2005).
13.J. Lee, S. Lee, G. Li, M. A. Petruska, D. C. Paine, and S. Sun, J.Am.Chem Soc 134, 13410 (2012).
14.H. Cho and Y. H. Yun, Ceram. Int. 27, 615 (2011).
15.R. BelHadjTahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, J.Appl.Phys 83, 5 (1998).
16.K. Kato, H. Omoto, T. Tomioka, and A. Takamatsu, Thin Solid Films 520, 110 (2011).
17.K. Zhang, F. Zhu, C. H. A. Huan, and A. T. S. Wee, J.Appl.Phys 86, 2 (1999).
18.K. Okada, S. Kohiki, S. Luo, D. Sekiba, S. Ishii, M. Mitome, A. Kohno, T. Tajiri, and F. Shoji, Thin Solid Films 519, 3557 (2011).
19.T. Ashida, A. Miyamuru, N. Oka, Y. Sato, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, and Y. Shigesato, J.Appl.Phys 105, 073709 (2009).
20.Y. J. Kim, S. B. Jin, S. I. Kim, Y. S. Choi, I. S. Choi, and J. G. Han, Thin Solid Films 518, 6241 (2010).
21.A. Sungthong, S. Porntheeraphat, A. Poya, and J. Nukeaw, Appl. Surf. Sci 254, 7950 (2008).
22.M. Ando, E. Nishimura, K. I. Onisawa, and T. Minemura, J.Appl.Phys 93, 2 (2003).
23.D. Liu, W. W. Lei, B. Zou, S. D. Yu, J. Hao, K. Wang, B. B. Liu, Q. L. Cui, and G. T. Zou, J.Appl.Phys 104, 083506 (2008).
24.O. M. Berengue, A. D. Rodrigues, C. J. Dalmaschio, A. J. C. Lanfredi, E. R. Leite, and A. J Chiquito, J.Phys.D: Appl.Phys 43, 04540 (2010).
25.R. Chandrasekhar and K. L. Choy, Thin solid films 398, 59 (2001).
26.S. N. Luo, A. Kono, N. Nouchi, and F. Shoji, J. Appl. Phys 100, 113701 (2006).
27.R. Savu and E. Joanni, Thin Solid Films 515, 7813 (2007).
28.A. J. Leenheer, J. D. Perkins, M. F. A. M. Van Hest, J. J. Berry, R. P. O. Hayre, and David S. Ginley, Phys. Rev B 77, 115215 (2009).
29.S. Luo, S. Kohiki, K. Okada, F. Shoji, and T. Shishido, Phys. Status Solidi A 207, 386 (2010).
30.R. Das, K. Adhikary, and S. Ray, Appl. Surf. Sci 253, 6068 (2007).
31.R. Swanepoel, J. Phps. E: Sci. Instrum 16 (1983).
32.M. Subramanian, S. Vijayalakshmi, S. Venkataraj, and R. Jayavel, Thin Solid Films 516, 3776 (2008).
33.T. S. Moss, Proc. Phys. Soc. B 63, 167 (1950).
34.V. Kumar and J. K. Singh, Indian J pure & Appl phys 48, 571 (2010).
35.H. Han and J. W. Mayer, J. Appl.Phys 100, 083715 (2006).
36.I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, Phys. Rev. B 30, 6 (1984).
37.A. J. Leenheer, J. D. Perkins, M. F. A. M. Van Hest, J. J. Berry, R. P. O’Hayre, and D. S. Ginley, Phys. Rev. B 77, 115215 (2008).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Sputtering has been well-developed industrially with singular ambient gases including neutral argon (Ar), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen (N) to enhance the electrical and optical performances of indium tin oxide (ITO) films. Recent preliminary investigation into the use of combined ambient gases such as an Ar+O+H ambient mixture, which was suitable for producing high-quality (low sheet resistance and high optical transmittance) of ITO films. To build on this promising preliminary work and develop deeper insight into the effect of ambient atmospheres on ITO film growth, this study provides a more detailed investigation of the effects of ambient combinations of Ar, O, H on sputtered ITO films. Thin films of ITO were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering using three different ambient combinations: Ar, Ar+O and Ar+O+H. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the three ambient sputtered ITO films were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, four probe electrical conductivity and optical spectroscopy. The XRD and Raman studies confirmed the cubic indium oxide structure, which is polycrystalline at room temperature for all the samples. AFM shows the minimum surface roughness of 2.7 nm for Ar+O+H sputtered thin film material. The thickness of the films was determined by the cross sectional SEM analysis and its thickness was varied from 920 to 817 nm. The columnar growth of ITO films was also discussed here. The electrical and optical measurements of Ar+O+H ambient combinations shows a decreased sheet resistance (5.06 ohm/□) and increased optical transmittance (69%) than other samples. The refractive index and packing density of the films were projected using optical transmission spectrum. From the observed results the Ar+O+H ambient is a good choice to enhance the total optoelectronic properties of the ITO films. The improved electrical and optical properties of ITO films with respect to the Ar+O+H ambient sample were discussed in detail. In addition, the physical properties were also discussed with the influence of this ambient combination with respect to Ar, Ar+O and Ar+O+H.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd