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Distribution of free carriers near heavily-doped epitaxial surfaces of n-type Ge(100) upon HF and HCl treatments
7.J-H. Lee, E. K. Lee, W-J. Joo, Y. Jang, B-S. Kim, J. Y. Lim, S-H. Choi, S. J. Ahn, J. R. Ahn, M-H. Park, C-W. Yang, B. L. Choi, S-W. Hwang, and D. Whang, Science 344, 286 (2014).
28.H. Lüth, Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films, 5th ed. (Springer, New York, 2010).
31.H. B. Gray, Chemical binds: an introduction to atomic and molecular structure (Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, 1972).
32.W. Mönch, Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1995).
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Carrier distributions near n-type epitaxially-grown Ge(100) surfaces with high impurity concentrations (1 × 1020 cm−3) were studied using high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) upon surface treatments in aqueous solutions of HF and HCl. After surface treatments with HCl and HF, the molecular vibration modes distinctly showed either chloride or hydride terminations of Ge
surfaces with negligible oxidation. The free-carrier concentration profile was inferred from the conduction band plasmon measurements as a function of the incident electron energies employing a dielectric theory simulation with a 4-layer structure and an effective electron mass of 0.02m
0. A carrier-free layer of 40 and 24 Å were derived for HCl- and HF-treated Ge(100), respectively. The surface band bending was estimated to be 0.32 eV for HF-treated Ge. HCl-treated Ge
surfaces showed a band bending of 0.91 eV attributed to the strong effect of the surface Cl-Ge dipole.
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