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Design of electric-field assisted surface plasmon resonance system for the detection of heavy metal ions in water
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Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as “Electric-Field assisted SPR system”. High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor
surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions (Cd
2+) in water from several parts per million (ppm) down to a few parts per billion (ppb) can be detected.
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