Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.R. Singh, N. Gautam, A. Mishra, and R. Gupta, “Heavy metals and living systems: an overview,” Indian J Pharmacol. 43, 246253 (2011).
2.A. Tadjarodi, A. Abbaszadeh, M. Taghizadeh, N. Shekari, and A.A. Asgharinezhad, “Solid phase extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions based on a novel functionalized Fe3 O4@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with the aid of multivariate optimization methodology,” Materials Science and Engineering C 49, 416-421 (2015).
3.Z. Wang, M. Wang, G. Wu, D. Wu, and A. Wu, “Colorimetric detection of copper and efficient removal of heavy metal ions from water by diamine-functionalized SBA-15,” Dalton Trans. 43, 8461-8468 (2014).
4.H, Qu, L. Cao, G. Su, W. Liu, R. Gao, C Xia, and J. Qin, “Silica-coated ZnS quantum dots as fluorescent probes for the sensitive detection of Pb2+ ions,” JNanopart Res 16:2762, 1-12, (2014).
5.S.A. El-Safty, M. A. Shenashen, M. Ismael, M. Khairy, and M. R. Awual, “Optical mesosensors for monitoring and removal of ultra-trace concentration of Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) ions from water,” Analyst 137, 5278-5290 (2012).
6.N. Chauhan, S. Gupta, N. Singh, S. Singh, S. S. Islam, K. N. Sood, and R. Pasricha, “Aligned nanogold assisted one step sensing and removal of heavy metal ions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 363, 42-50 (2011).
7.L. Rottmann and K. G. Heumann, “Determination of heavy metal interactions with dissolved organic materials in natural aquatic systems by coupling a high-performance liquid chromatography system with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer,” Anal. Chem. 66, 3709-3715 (1994).
8.R. K. Mahajan, I. Kaur, and T. S. Lobana, “A mercury (II) ion-selective electrode based on neutral salicylaldehydethiosemicarbazone,” Talanta 59, 101-105 (2003).
9.W. J. Yi, Y. Li, G. Ran, H. Q. Luo, and N. B. Li, “Determination of cadmium(II) by square wave anodicstripping voltammetry using bismuth-antimony film electrode,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 166-167, 544-548 (2012).
10.R.-G. Cao, B. Zhu, J. Li, and D. Xu, “Oligonucleotides-based biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity formercury using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Electrochemistry Communications 11, 1815-1818 (2009).
11.L. Sartore, M. Barbaglio, L. Borgese, and E. Bontempi, “Polymer-grafted QCM chemical sensor and application to heavy metal ions real time detection,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 155, 538-544 (2011).
12.E. Wijaya, C. Lenaerts, S. Maricot, J Hastanin, S. Habraken, J.-P. Vilcot, R. Boukherroub, and S. Szunerits, “Surface plasmon resonance-based biosensors: from the development of different SPR structures to novel surface functionalization strategies,” Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science 15, 208-224 (2011).
13.D. R. Shankaran, K. V. Gobi, and N. Miura, “Recent advancements in surface plasmon resonance immunosensors for detection of small molecules of biomedical, food and environmental interest,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 121, 158-177 (2007).
14.Y. W. Fen and W. M. M. Yunus, “Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy as an alternative for sensing heavy metal ions: a review,” Sensors Review 33, 305-314 (2013).
15.E. S. Forzani, H. Zhang, W. Chen, and N. Tao, “Detection of heavy metal ions in drinking water using a high-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 1257-1262 (2005).
16.S. Lin, C. C. Chang, and C. W. Lin, “A reversible optical sensor based on chitosan film for the selective detection of copper ions,” Biomed.Eng. Appl. Basis Commun. 24, 453-459 (2012).
17.L. May May and D. A. Russell, “Novel determination of cadmium ions using an enzyme self-assembled monolayer with surface plasmon resonance,” Analytica Chimica Acta 500, 119-125 (2003).
18.S. Wang, E. S. Forzani, and N. Tao, “Detection of heavy metal ions in water by high-resolution surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy combined with anodic stripping voltammetry,” Anal.Chem. 79, 4427-4432 (2007).
19.A. N. Naimushin, S. D. Soelberg, D. U. Bartholomew, J. L. Elkind, and C. E. Furlong, “A portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor system with temperature regulation,” Sensors and Actuators B 96, 253260 (2003).
20.T.M. Chinowsky, S. D. Soelberg, P. Baker, N. R. Swanson, P. Kauffman, A. Mactutis, M. S. Grow, R. Atmar, S. S. Yee, and C. E. Furlong, “Portable 24-analyte surface plasmon resonance instruments for rapid, versatile biodetection,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22, 22682275 (2007).
21.S. Boonruang and W.S Mohammed, “Integrated diffractive optical elements for optical sensors applications,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Photonics (ICP), Kata Kinabalu, Malaysia, 17-19 October 2011, pp.1-5.
22.G. J. C. Maxwell, “Colours in metal glasses and metal films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Sect. A 3, 385420 (1904).
23.U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical properties of metal clusters (Springer, 1995), Vol.25.
24.P. Junlabhut, S. Phoojaruenchanachai, W. Pecharapa, and S. Boonruang, “Fabrication of holographic lens as a coupling device in surfaceplasmon resonance biosensor,” Proc. of SPIE 7743, 774302 (2010).
25.H.C. Pederson and C. Thirstrup, “Design of near-field holographic optical elements by Grating Matching,” Appl. Opt. 43, 12091215 (2004).
26.M. Bender, A. Fuchs, U. Plachetka, and H. Kurz, “Status and prospects of UV-Nanoimprint technology,” Microelectronics Engineering 83, 827-830 (2006).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used in diverse applications. For detecting heavy metal ions in water, surface functionalization of the metal surface is typically used to adsorb target molecules, where the ionic concentration is detected via a resonance shift (resonance angle, resonance wavelength or intensity). This paper studies the potential of a possible alternative approach that could eliminate the need of using surface functionalization by the application of an external electric field in the flow channel. The exerted electrical force on the ions pushes them against the surface for enhanced adsorption; hence it is referred to as “Electric-Field assisted SPR system”. High system sensitivity is achieved by monitoring the time dynamics of the signal shift. The ion deposition dynamics are discussed using a derived theoretical model based on ion mobility in water. On the application of an appropriate force, the target ions stack onto the sensor surface depending on the ionic concentration of target solution, ion mass, and flow rate. In the experimental part, a broad detection range of target cadmium ions ( 2+) in water from several parts per million () down to a few parts per billion () can be detected.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd