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1.S. A. Sheffield, R. L. Gustavsen, and M. U. Anderson, “Shock Loading of Porous High Explosives,” in High-Pressure Shock Compression of Solids IV - Response of Highly Porous Solids to Shock Loading, edited by L. Davison, Y. Horie, and M. Shahinpoor (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997), pp. 23-61.
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Compaction waves traveling through porous cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX) are computationally modeled using the Eulerian hydrocode CTH and validated with gas gun experimental data. The method employed use of a newly generated set of P-α parameters for granular HMX in a Mie-Gruneisen equation of state. The P-α model adds a separate parameter to differentiate between the volume changes of a solidmaterial due to compression from the volume change due to compaction, void collapse in a granular material. Computational results are compared via five validation schema for two different initial-porosity experiments. These schema include stress measurements, velocity rise times and arrival times, elasticsound speeds though the material and final compaction densities for a series of two different percent Theoretical Maximum Density (TMD) HMX sets of experimental data. There is a good agreement between the simulations and the experimental gas gun data with the largest source of error being an 11% overestimate of the peak stress which may be due to impedance mismatch on the experimental gauge interface. Determination of these P-α parameters are important as they enable modeling of porosity and are a vital first step in modeling of precursory hotspots, caused by hydrodynamic collapse of void regions or grain interactions, prior to deflagration to detonation transition of granular explosives.


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