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A new titanium dioxide (TiO) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.


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