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Radiometric calibration of optical microscopy and microspectroscopy apparata over a broad spectral range using a special thin-film luminescence standard
1.I. Pelant and J. Valenta, Luminescence Spectroscopy of Semiconductors (Oxford University Press, 2012).
2.W. R. McCluney, Introduction to Radiometry and Photometry (Artech House Inc., Boston London, 1994).
5. Note, we recommend to avoid application of small spectrographs – having focal length shorter than about 25 cm – as they suffer from increasing stray light intensity which significantly affects results of sensitivity calibration obtained by measuring broad-band light sources. The stray-light-effects are strong in spectral regions where sensitivity drops down).
9. Note, the number of pixels over which signal was averaged is different from the 3x2 pixels in the schematical illustration on Fig. 2. In fact, the result of the described procedure should be independent on the number of averaged pixels; unless the signal distribution changes significantly within the averaged area (such situation must be avoided not only during calibration but also during all subsequent measurements). It means that one can adapt number of averaged pixels and a slit width (within certain limits) in order to improve signal-to-noise ratio.
16.J. Valenta, A. Fucikova, F. Vácha, F. Adamec, J. Humpolíěková, M. Hof, I. Pelant, K. Kůsová, K. Dohnalová, and J. Linnros, Adv. Functional Materials 18, 2666 (2008).
17.I.G. Hughes and T.P.A. Hase, Measurements And Their Uncertainties: A Practical Guide to Modern Error Analysis (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010).
21. This assumption may be quite rough, but the purpose of this experiment is just to demonstrate application potential of the calibrated VIS/NIR microspectroscope for SC testing via EL yield determination. If necessary, the angular distribution of EL from a SC can be characterized using the goniometer set-up as shown in Fig. 5 (but without the excitation laser).
26.J. Zhao, D. Jin, E.P. Schartner, Y. Lu, Y. Liu, A.V. Zvyagin, L. Zhang, J. M. Dawes, P. Xi, J.A. Piper, E.M. Goldys, and T.M. Monro, Nature Nanotech. 8, 729 (2013).
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Application capabilities of optical microscopes and microspectroscopes can be considerably enhanced by a proper calibration of their spectral sensitivity. We propose and demonstrate a method of relative and absolute calibration of a microspectroscope over an extraordinary broad spectral range covered by two (parallel) detection branches in visible and near-infrared
spectral regions. The key point of the absolute calibration of a relative spectral sensitivity is application of the standard sample formed by a thin layer of Si nanocrystals with stable and efficient photoluminescence. The spectral
PL quantum yield and the PL spatial distribution of the standard sample must be characterized by separate experiments. The absolutely calibrated microspectroscope enables to characterize spectral
photon emittance of a studied object or even its luminescence quantum yield (QY) if additional knowledge about spatial distribution of emission and about excitance is available. Capabilities of the calibrated microspectroscope are demonstrated by measuring external QY of electroluminescence from a standard poly-Si solar-cell and of photoluminescence of Er-doped Si nanocrystals.
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