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Potassium acceptor doping of ZnO crystals
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ZnO bulk single crystals were doped with potassium by diffusion at 950°C. Positron annihilation spectroscopy confirms the filling of zinc
vacancies and a different trapping center for positrons.
Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show the diffusion of potassium up to 10 μm with concentration ∼1 × 1016 cm−3. IR measurements show a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3226 cm−1, at a temperature of 9 K, in a potassium
doped sample that was subsequently hydrogenated. The LVM is attributed to an O–H bond-stretching mode adjacent to a potassium acceptor. When deuterium substitutes for hydrogen, a peak is observed at 2378 cm−1. The O-H peak is much broader than the O-D peak, perhaps due to an unusually low vibrational lifetime. The isotopic frequency ratio is similar to values found in other hydrogen complexes. Potassium
doping increases the resistivity up to 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The doped sample has a donor level at 0.30 eV.
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