Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.R. C. Chang, F. Y. Chen, and P. H. Yang, “Dynamic mechanical properties of photo resist thin films,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 21, 1739-1744 (2007).
2.D. D. Wang, P. K. Tan, M. Y. Huang, J. Lam, and Z. H. Mai, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 32, 030605 (2014).
3.L. M. Manske, D. B. Graves, and W. G. Oldham, “Dynamic measurements of film thickness over local topography in spin coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2348-2350 (1990).
4.V. Seidemann, S. Butefisch, and S. Buttegenbach, “Fabrication and investigation of in-plane compliant SU8 structures for MEMS and their application to micro valves and micro grippers,” Sensor. Actuat. A 97, 457-461 (2002).
5.L. M. Peurrung and D. B., “Graves, Spin Coating Over Topography,” IEEE T. Semiconduct. M 6, 72-76 (1993).
6.D. D. Wang, W. L. Wang, M. Y. Huang, A. Lek, J. Lam, and Z. H. Mai, AIP ADVANCES 4, 077124 (2014).
7.S. Wolf and R. N. Tauber, Silicon Processing for the Vlsi Era, vol.1-2. Sunset Beach, CA: Lattice, 1986.
8.D. E. Bornside, C. W. Macosko, and L. E. Scriven, “Spin coating: One-dimensional model,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 5185-5193 (1989).
9.K. Lee, J. Lee, B. A. Mazor, and S. R. Forrest, “Transforming the cost of solar-to-electrical energy conversion: Integrating thin-film GaAs solar cells with non-tracking mini-concentrators,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4, e288 (2015).
10.L. B. Yu, E.lsie Barakat, T. Sfez, L. Hvozdara, J. D. Francesco, and H. Peter Herzig, “Manipulating Bloch surface waves in 2D: a platform concept-based flat lens,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e124 (2014).
11.W. Xiong, Y. S. Zhou, X. N. He, Y. Gao, M. Mahjouri-Samani, L. Jiang, T. Baldacchini, and Y. F. Lu, “Simultaneous additive and subtractive three-dimensional nanofabrication using integrated two-photon polymerization and multiphoton ablation,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1, e6 (2012).
12.J. Yang, F. F. Luo, T. S. Kao, X. Li, G. W. Ho, J. H. Teng, X. G. Luo, and M. H. Hong, “Design and fabrication of broadband ultralow reflectivity black Si surfaces by laser micro/nanoprocessing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e185 (2014).
13.P. Girshovitz and N. T. Shaked, “Doubling the field of view in off-axis low-coherence interferometric imaging,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e151 (2014).
14.K. Obata, A. El-Tamer, L. Koch, U. Hinze, and B. N. Chichkov, “High-aspect 3D two-photon polymerization structuring with widened objective working range (WOW-2PP),” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e116 (2013).
15.M. Schumann, T. Bückmann, N. Gruhler, M. Wegener, and W. Pernice, “Hybrid 2D–3D optical devices for integrated optics by direct laser writing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e175 (2014).
16.V. J. Cadarso, S. Chosson, K. Sidler, R. D. Hersch, and J. Brugger, “High-resolution 1D moirés as counterfeit security features,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e86 (2013).
17.Y. K. Liu, S. C. Wang, Y. H. Li, J. Y. Zhou, Jun-Tao Li, K S Wong, and T. F. Krauss, “Efficient color routing with a dispersion-controlled waveguide array,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e52 (2013).
18.K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers-reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3, e149 (2014).
19.D. P. Birnie III and M. Manley, “Combined flow and evaporation of fluid on a spinning disk,” Phys. Fluids 9, 870-875 (1997).
20.M. Yanagisawa, “Slip effect for thin liquid film on a rotating disk,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 1034-1037 (1987).
21.Y. Z. He, Y. L. Han, Y. G. Zhao, and B. S. Cao, “Investigation into the flange problem of resist along the edge of substrate caused by spin coating,” Microelectron. Eng. 63, 347-352 (2002).
22.A. G. Emslie, F. T. Bonner, and L. G. Peck, “Flow of a viscous liquid on a rotating disk,” J. Appl. Phys. 29, 858-862 (1958).
23.D. Meyerhofer, “Characteristics of resist film produced by spinning,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3993-3997 (1978).
24.X. G. Feng and L. C. Sun, “Mathematical model of spin-coated photoresist on a spherical substrate,” Optics Express 13, 7070-7075 (2005).
25.T. G. Myers and J. P. Charpin, “The effect of the coriolis force on axisymmetric rotating thin film flows,” Int. J. Non-linear Mech. 36, 629-635 (2001).
26.H. D. Yue and L. F. Pan, “Mechanics analysis in CD-R dye coating process,” Y. J. Bin, K. Chen,Proc. SPIE, 4930, 253-257 (2002).
27.Y. J. Xie, Z. W. Lu, and F. Y. Li, “Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface, Optics Express,” Optics Express 11, 992-995 (2003).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



A thickness distribution model of photoresist spin-coating on concave spherical substrate (CSS) has been developed via both theoretical studies and experimental verification. The stress of photoresist on rotating CSS is analyzed and the boundary conditions of hydrodynamic equation are presented under the non-lubricating condition. Moreover, a multivariable polynomial equation of photoresist-layer thickness distribution is derived by analyzing and deducing the flow equation where the evaporation rate, substrate topography, interface slip between liquid and CSS, and the variation of rotational speed and photoresist parameters are considered in detail. Importantly, the photoresist-layer thickness at various CSS rotational speeds and liquid concentrations can be obtained according to the theoretical equation. The required photoresist viscosity and concentration parameters of different photoresist coating thickness under a certain coating speeds can be also solved through this equation. It is noted that the calculated theoretical values are well consistent with the experimental results which were measured with various CSS rotational speeds and liquid concentrations at steady state. Therefore, both our experimental results and theoretical analysis provide the guidance for photoresist dilution and pave the way for potential improvements and microfabrication applications in the future.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd