Skip to main content

News about Scitation

In December 2016 Scitation will launch with a new design, enhanced navigation and a much improved user experience.

To ensure a smooth transition, from today, we are temporarily stopping new account registration and single article purchases. If you already have an account you can continue to use the site as normal.

For help or more information please visit our FAQs.

banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1.S. De Wolf, A. Descoeudres, Z. C. Holman, and C. Ballif, “High-efficiency Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Review,” Green 2, 724 (2012).
2.Y. Lin, X. Li, D. Xie et al., “Graphene/semiconductor heterojunction solar cells with modulated antireflection and graphene work function,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 108115 (2013).
3.X. Li, H. Zhu, K. Wang et al., “Graphene-on-silicon Schottky junction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 22, 27432748 (2010).
4.I. Khrapach, F. Withers, T. H. Bointon et al., “”Novel highly conductive and transparent graphene-based conductors,” Adv. Mater. 24, 28442849 (2012).
5.W. Cai, Y. Zhu, X. Li et al., “Large area few-layer graphene/graphite as a transparent conducting electrodes,” App. Phy. Lett. 95, 123115-1-123115-3 (2009).
6.X. Li, D. Xie, H. Park et al., “Ion doping of graphene for high-efficiency heterojunction solar cells,” Nanoscale 5, 1945-1948 (2013).
7.H. J. Shin, W. M. Choi, D. Choi et al., “Control of electronic structure of graphene by various dopants and their effects on a nanogenerator,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 1560315609 (2010).
8.S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee et al., “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 574-578 (2010).
9.X. Meng, S. Tongay, J. Kang et al., “Stable p- and n-type doping of few-layer graphene/graphite,” Carbon 57, 507-514 (2013).
10.Xiaoling Shi, Guofa Dong, Ming Fang et al., “Selective n-type doping in graphene via the aluminium nanoparticle decoration approach,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 5417 (2014).
11.In-Yeal Lee, Hyung-Youl Park, Jin-Hyung Park et al., “Hydrazine-based n-type doping process to modulate Dirac point of graphene and its application to complementary inverter,” Organic Electronics 14, 15861590 (2013).
12.I. Gierz, C. Riedl, U. Starke et al., “Atomic Hole Doping of Graphene,” Nano Lett. 8, 4603-4607 (2008).
13.T. Cui, R. Lv, Z. H. Huang et al., “Enhanced efficiency of graphene/silicon heterojunction solar cells by molecular doping,” J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 5736-5740 (2013).
14.X. Li, H. Zhu, K. Wang et al., “Chemical doping and enhanced solar energy conversion of graphene/silicon junctions,” in Proceedings of the Conference on China Technological Development of Renewable Energy Source, (2010) pp. 387-390.
15.T. Feng, D. Xie, Y. Lin et al., “Efficiency enhancement of graphene/silicon-pillar-array solar cells by HNO3 and PEDOT-PSS,” Nanoscale 4, 21302133 (2012).
16.Z. Zhang, T. Cui, R. Lv et al., “Improved efficiency of graphene/Si heterojunction solar cells by optimizing hydrocarbon feed rate,” Journal of Nanomaterials 2014, 359305 (2014).
17.X. Miao, S. Tongay, M. K. Petterson et al., “High efficiency graphene solar cells by chemical doping,” Nano Lett. 12, 27452750 (2012).
18.Y. Lin, D. Xie, Y. Chen et al., “Optimization of graphene/silicon heterojunction solar cells,” in Proceedings of Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (IEEE, 2012) pp. 002566-002570.
19.R. Stangl, M. Kriegel, and M. Schmidt, “AFORS-HET 2.2: A numerical computer program for simulation of heterojunction solar cells and measurements,” in Proceedings of WCPEC-4, 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Hawaii, USA, (2006) pp. 1350-1353.
20.M. G. Ancona, “Electron transport in graphene from a diffusion-drift Perspective,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices 57(3), 681-689 (2010).
21.R. Wang, S. Wang, D. Zhang et al., “Control of carrier type and density in exfoliated graphene by interface engineering,” ACS Nano 5, 408-412 (2011).
22.F. Iacopi, T. Gould, J. J. Boeckl et al., “Graphene as a p-type metal for ultimate miniaturization,” arXiv:1503.06253 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci].
23.F. Giannazzo, S. Sonde, and V. Raineri, “Electronic properties of graphene probed at the nanoscale,” in Physics and Applications of Graphene - Experiments, edited by Sergey Mikhailov (InTech, 2011), pp. 353-376.
24.S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two dimensional graphene,” Reviews of Modern Physics 83, 407-470 (2011).
25.Z. H. Ni, H.M. Wang, J. Kasim et al., “Graphene Thickness Determination using Reflection and Contrast Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7, 27582763 (2007).
26.S. Zhong, X. Hua, W. Shen et al., “Simulation of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells with homo–hetero junctions,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices 60(7), 2104-2110 (2013).
27.U. Gangopadhyay, S. Roy, S. Garain et al., “Comparative simulation study between n- type and p- type silicon solar cells and the variation of efficiency of n- type solar cell by the application of passivation improvement layer with different thickness using AFORS HET and PC1D,” IOSR Journal of Engineering 2(8), 41-48 (2012).
28.M. Mohammed, Z. Li, J. Cui, and Tar-pin Chen, “Junction investigation of graphene/silicon Schottky diodes,” Nanoscale Research Letters 7, 302 (2012).
29.S. Tongay, M. Lemaitre, X. Miao et al., “Rectification at graphene-semiconductor interfaces zero- gap semiconductor-based diodes,” Physical Review X 2, 011002 -1-011002 (2012).
30.J. Pezoldt, Ch. Hummel, F. Schwierz et al., “Graphene field effect transistor improvement by graphene - silicon dioxide interface modification,” Physica E 44, 985-988 (2012).
31.D. G. Kvashnin, P. B. Sorokin, J. W. Brüning, and L. A. Chernozatonskii, “The impact of edges and dopants on the work function of graphene nanostructures: The way to high electronic emission from pure carbon medium,” App. Phy. Lett. 102, 183112 (2013).
32.A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Physics Today 60, 35-41 (2007).
33.S E Zhu, S Yuan, and G C A M Jansse, “Optical transmittance of multilayer graphene,” EPL 108, 17007 (2014).
34.L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” in Proceedings of The International Conference on Theoretical Physics Dubna-Nano2008 , Journal of Physics: Conference Series 129, 012004 (2008).
35.W. Xu and H. M. Dong, in Photo-Induced Carrier Density, Optical Conductance and Transmittance in Graphene in the Presence of Optic-Phonon Scattering, Physics and Applications of Graphene - Theory , edited bySergey Mikhailov (InTech, 2011), pp. 509-512.

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



In this paper, the structure of a graphene/silicon heterojunction solar cell has been studied under simulated conditions. The parameters of the cell’s layers have been optimized by using AFORS-HET software. Instead of reported 2D nature, we considered graphene as 3D in nature. To ensure the formation of Schottky junction, electrical contacts were made along c-axis to collect the minority carriers, which generate upon illumination. By optimizing the various parameters of n-type multilayer graphene, we achieved the best-simulated cell with the power conversion efficiency of 7.62 % at room temperature. Up to 40 layers of n-type graphene, the efficiency found to be constant and enhanced only to 7.623 %. After further optimization of the parameters of p-crystalline silicon wafer, a maximum efficiency of 11.23 % has been achieved. Temperature dependence on the cell performance has also been studied and an efficiency of 11.38 % has been achieved at 270 K. Finally, we have demonstrated that n-type multilayer graphene can act as an excellent transparent conducting electrode.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd