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Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study
15.W. A. Harrison, Electronic structure and the properties of solids (Dover, New York, 1980), chap. 13.
16.E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Lytvynov, and V. Pishchik, Sapphire: material, manufacturing, applications (Springer, New York, 2009), chap. 2.
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In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al2O3) with the substitution of Si for Al.
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