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Improved electrical properties for Mn-doped lead-free piezoelectric potassium sodium niobate ceramics
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The un-doped and doped lead-free piezoelectric potassium sodium niobate (K0.5
0.5NbO3, KNN) ceramics with different amounts of Mn were prepared. The decreased dielectric losses and the improved electrical properties were observed in the Mn-doped KNN ceramics. However, the variation of electrical properties with the Mn contents was not continuously. The 0.5 mol.% Mn-doped KNN ceramic shows the highest dielectric loss and the worst electrical properties. The KNN ceramics
doped with less than and more than 0.5 mol.% Mn all show improved electrical properties. The change of lattice position of Mn ions in KNN ceramics was the main reason. When the Mn content is less than 0.5 mol.%, the Mn ions occupied the cation vacancies in A-site. When the Mn content is higher than 0.5 mol.%, the Mn ions entered B-site of KNN perovskite structure and formed the defect complexes (
) and (
). They both led to a lower defect concentration. However, When the Mn content is up to 1.5 mol.%, the electrical properties of KNN ceramic became degraded because of the accumulation of Mn oxides at grain boundaries.
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