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The average valence, , of the oxygen anions in the perovskite oxide BaTiO, was found using O1s photoelectron spectra to be −1.55. This experimental result is close to the theoretical value for BaTiO (−1.63) calculated by Cohen [Nature , 136 (1992)] using density functional theory. Using the same approach, we obtained values of for several monoxides, and investigated the dependence of and the ionicity on the second ionization energy, ( 2+), of the metal cation. We found that the dependence of the ionicity on ( 2+) in this work is close to that reported by Phillips [Rev. Mod. Phys. , 317 (1970)]. We therefore suggest that O1s photoelectron spectrum measurements should be accepted as a general experimental method for estimating the ionicity and average valence of oxygen anions.


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