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Method for estimating ionicities of oxides using O1s photoelectron spectra
12.L. L. Lang, J. Xu, W. H. Qi, Z. Z. Li, G. D. Tang, Z. F. Shang, X. Y. Zhang, L. Q. Wu, and L. C. Xue, J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123901 (2014).
17.L. L. Lang, J. Xu, Z. Z. Li, W. H. Qi, G. D. Tang, Z. F. Shang, X.Y. Zhang, L. Q. Wu, and L. C. Xue, Physica B. 462, 47 (2015).
19.J. Xu, L. Ma, Z. Z. Li, L.L. Lang, W. H. Qi, G. D. Tang, L.Q. Wu, L.C. Xue, and G.H. Wu, Phys. Status Solidi B. (2015), published online (Aug, 2015), DOI 10.1002/pssb.201552260.
20.K. Suzuki, B. Barbiellini, Y. Orikasa, N. Go, H. Sakurai, S. Kaprzyk, M. Itou, K. Yamamoto, Y. Uchimoto, Yung Jui Wang, H. Hafiz, A. Bansil, and Y. Sakurai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 087401 (2015).
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The average valence, V
alO, of the oxygen anions in the perovskite oxide BaTiO3, was found using O1s photoelectron spectra to be −1.55. This experimental result is close to the theoretical value for BaTiO3 (−1.63) calculated by Cohen [Nature 358, 136 (1992)] using density functional theory. Using the same approach, we obtained values of V
alO for several monoxides, and investigated the dependence of V
alO and the ionicity on the second ionization energy, V(M
2+), of the metal cation. We found that the dependence of the ionicity on V(M
2+) in this work is close to that reported by Phillips [Rev. Mod. Phys. 42, 317 (1970)]. We therefore suggest that O1s photoelectron spectrum measurements should be accepted as a general experimental method for estimating the ionicity and average valence of oxygen anions.
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