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Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100)
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In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI) and N2plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N2plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N2plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN filmdeposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate temperatures.
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