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Properties of Gd2
nanoparticles studied by hyperfine interactions and magnetization measurements
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The magnetic behavior of Gd2O3nanoparticles, produced by thermal decomposition method and subsequently annealed at different temperatures, was investigated by magnetization measurements and, at an atomic level, by perturbed γ − γ angular correlation (PAC)spectroscopymeasuringhyperfineinteractions at 111In(111Cd) probe nuclei. Nanoparticlestructure, size and shape were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy(TEM).Magnetization measurements were carried out to characterize the paramagnetic behavior of the samples. XRD results show that all samples crystallize in the cubic-C form of the bixbyite structure with space group Ia3. TEM images showed that particles annealed at 873 K present particles with highly homogeneous sizes in the range from 5 nm to 10 nm and those annealed at 1273 K show particles with quite different sizes from 5 nm to 100 nm, with a wide size distribution. PAC and magnetization results show that samples annealed at 873 and 1273 K are paramagnetic.Magnetization measurements show no indication of blocking temperatures for all samples down to 2 K and the presence of antiferromagnetic correlations.
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