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1.Z. Chen, Y.K. Lim, and D. Brown, “Substitution of Ce for (Nd,Pr) in Melt-Spun (Nd,Pr)–Fe–B Powders,” IEEE Trans. Magn 51, 2102104 (2015).
2.A.K Pathak, M. Khan, K.A. Gschneidner, R.W. McCallum, L. Zhou, K. Sun, K W. Dennis, C Zhou, F. E. Pinkerton, M.J. Kramer, and V.K. Pecharsk, “Cerium: An Unlikely Replacement of Dysprosium in High Performance Nd–Fe–B Permanent Magnets,” Adv. Mater. 27, 26632667 (2015).
3.J.F. Herbst and J.J. Croat, “Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets,” J. Magn. Mag. Mat. 100, 57-78 (1991).
4.K.H.J. Buschow, Repts. Prog. Phys 54, 1123 (1991).

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This is a contemporary study of rapidly quenched NdXFeB magnetic materials (where X= Nd, Y, Ce, La, Pr, Gd and Ho). A 20% substitution of the Nd component from NdFeB can bring about some commercial advantage. However, there will be some compromise to the magnetic performance. Light rare earth elements are definitely more abundant (Y, Ce, La) than the heavier rare earth elements, but when they are included in REFeB magnets they tend to lower magnetic performance and thermal stability. Substituting heavy rare earth elements (Gd, Ho) for Nd in NdFeB improves the thermal stability of magnets but causes a loss in magnet remanence.


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