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Performance of arrays of direct-driven wave energy converters under optimal power take-off damping
A. Clément, P. McCullen, A. Falcão, A. Fiorentino, F. Gardner, K. Hammarlund, G. Lemonis, T. Lewis, K. Nielsen, S. Petroncini, M.-T. Pontes, P. Schild, B.-O. Sjöström, H.C. Sørensen, and T. Thorpe, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 6, 405 (2002).
R. Waters, M. Stålberg, O. Danielsson, O. Svensson, S. Gustafsson, E. Strömstedt, M. Eriksson, J. Sundberg, and M. Leijon, Applied Physics Letters 90, 34105 (2007).
M. Leijon, O. Danielsson, M. Eriksson, K. Thorburn, H. Bernhoff, J. Isberg, J. Sundberg, I. Ivanova, E. Sjöstedt, O. Ågren, K.E. Karlsson, and A. Wolfbrandt, Renewable Energy 31, 1309 (2006).
J. Falnes, Ocean Waves and Oscillating Systems: Linear Interactions Including Wave-Energy Extraction (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002), p. 11.
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It is well known that the total power converted by a wave
energy farm is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between wave
energy converters, especially when they are close to each other. Therefore, to improve the performance of a wave
energy farm, the hydrodynamic interaction between converters must be considered, which can be influenced by the power take-off damping of individual converters. In this paper, the performance of arrays of wave
energy converters under optimal hydrodynamic interaction and power take-off damping is investigated. This is achieved by coordinating the power take-off damping of individual converters, resulting in optimal hydrodynamic interaction as well as higher production of time-averaged power converted by the farm. Physical constraints on motion amplitudes are considered in the solution, which is required for the practical implementation of wave
energy converters. Results indicate that the natural frequency of a wave
energy converter under optimal damping will not vary with sea states, but the production performance of a wave
energy farm can be improved significantly while satisfying the motion constraints.
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