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(Color online) Magnetic force microscopy investigations: (a) topography image (5 μm × 5 μm) and (b) its corresponding MFM phase image of magnetite dot structures ( ∼ 400 nm diameter) grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3(100) (the insets are zoomed in images of single dots); (c) topography image (5 μm × 5 μm) and (d) its corresponding MFM phase image of magnetite structures (∼400 nm diameter) sandwiched between epitaxial PZT20/80 films.
(Color online) HAADF-STEM ((a) and (b)) and HRTEM (d) cross section micrographs of a magnetic dot and the bottom and top PZT20/80 films. In (c), we show an electron energy loss spectrum acquired on the same magnetic structure as in HAADF-STEM images (a) and (b), and (e) Fourier transform of the HRTEM image.
(Color online) Ferroelectric hysteresis loops measured through platinum top electrodes (as shown in the bottom right inset photograph) at 1 kHz and room temperature. On two different PZT/magnetic dot structures: (a) PZT20/80/magnetic dots/PZT20/80 and (b) PZT52/48/magnetic dots/PZT52/48.
(Color online) Room temperature piezoresponse force microscopy of PZT20/80/magnetic dots/PZT20/80 structures: phase (upper row) and amplitude (middle row) images in the as-grown state ((a) and (d)), and after application of +2500 gauss ((b) and (e)), and −2500 gauss ((c) and (f)) in-plane magnetic field. There is a slight mechanical drift that affected the scanned areas (see marked dots in (d)–(f)) during these consecutive measurements. Images in the lowest row are zoom-ins on a single structure. Polarization switching in the PZT could be achieved both on top of the magnetic dot and in between the dots, as seen from the piezoresponse phase hysteresis loops in (i).
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