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(Color online) (a) RHEED intensity oscillations (with period Δ) during the BTO growth at T = 680 °C. In the inset: RHEED pattern at 50 keV from which the intensity of the (0,0) reflection has been monitored. (b) Evolution of the (0,0) reflection intensity upon BTO deposition induced by a single laser pulse at T = 680 °C. τs is the characteristic relaxation time. (c) Arrhenius plot of τs and linear fit for T < 680 °C giving the activation energy barrier Ea .
(Color online) (a) Modulus (full circles, left scale) and phase (empty squares, right scale) of the complex impedance Z vs. frequency for a BTO/Nb:STO sample grown at T = 640 °C. The fit (lines) has been performed by using the equivalent circuit shown in the inset. (b) Total equivalent capacitance as a function of bias, measured at 10 kHz on a film grown at T = 640 °C. (c) P-E characteristics of the sample grown at 640 °C measured at 10 kHz. DLCC compensation technique has been used to subtract leakage contribution.
(Color online) (a) Real part of the permittivity (ɛ′) and loss tangent at 10 kHz as a function of the growth temperature; (b) Saturation polarization (PS ) and ratio between the time for completing one monolayer (Δ) and the surface relaxation time (τS ), as a function of the growth temperature; (c) XPS analysis of the relative intensities of Ba and Ti peaks in samples grown at 680 °C and 730 °C. Spectra have been normalized to the Ti2p intensity.
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