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Image of the experimental configuration with overlaid coordinate system and variable definitions.
(Color online) Representative interaction between advecting vortex ring and IPMC. Nondimensional time is indicated in the insets. Vorticity contour plots are scaled in the range . Minimum negative and maximum positive values of vorticity (with respect to the z-axis pointing outward) are attained at the core of the vortex ring: blue (bottom) and red (top), respectively.
(Color online) Scaled deflection at the IPMC tip as a function of the nondimensional time for five different experiments (Exp. 1: , and ; Exp. 2: , and ; Exp. 3: , and ; Exp. 4: , and ; and Exp. 5: , and ) along with a curve indicating the vortex ring y-position on the secondary axis. Note that the secondary plot is a straight line due to the selected nondimensionalization and that the line has to be considered accurate only in the reported range which excludes the impact with the IPMC. After the vortex ring reaches y = 0, the vortex ring ceases to be an identifiable structure.
(Color online) Scaled deflection at the IPMC tip (dashed line) as a function of the nondimensional time and short-circuit current (solid line) through the IPMC for Exp. 2 in Figure 3.
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